Music revision notes - listening exam

These are some notes for the music listening exam for OCR on some of the different types of music. Hope it helps =)

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  • Created by: Joanne
  • Created on: 26-05-12 18:27
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African A cappella singing AoS2
A cappella = unaccompanied
Sung in African
Zulu people in South Africa speak Swahili
Songs for occasions: birthdays, weddings, funerals, religious events
Call and response between soloist and chorus
Small intervals between notes of melody (2nds and 3rds)
Ladysmith Black Mambazo ­ all-male choir in South Africa
Slurs, whistles, yodels, clapping, buzzing sounds
American Line dance AoS3
Dancers stand in lines, face same way, dance steps at same time = unison
Moderate tempo
1980s = line dance
Simple, memorable melodies
Cowboy hats, boots, check shirts, denim
Danced to recorded music
Influenced from country western music
`Caller' calls moves/demonstrates steps
Band instruments with: double bass, banjo, mandolin, accordion, harmonica, fiddle
Baroque AoS2
1600 ­ 1750
Simple melody decorated with many trills and ornaments
Harmony based on primary chords
Balanced phrasing and imitation between instruments
Organ, recorders, harpsichord
No dynamics on harpsichord ­ harpsichord continuo (played continuously)
J.S. Bach
Bhangra AoS3
Fusion of Punjabi folk music (Indian classical) and popular western music

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Punjabi lyrics
Migrants of Punjab brought their folk music to the UK in 1960s
Influenced by hip-hop, rock, R&B
Performed at parties, festivals, weddings
Follows western musical structure of verse and chorus
Simple repetitive melodies
Danced in groups in traditional costumes
Popular in strong ethnic areas e.g.…read more

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­ 1800
Simple melodies with less decoration
Balanced 4 bar phrases (2 bar question, 2 bar answer)
Theme and variations ­ accompaniment: add/remove notes, change metre or tempo
Broken chords ­ alberti bass (arpeggios)
Small orchestras ­ mostly strings, few woodwind and brass ­ timpani = percussion
Club AoS3
Developed from disco in 1980s/1990s in Chicago by remixing existing tracks
More emphasis on music technology
4 strong drum beats per bar
Samples (sounds) and loops (repeating) done by computers
Delay, panning, reverb…read more

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Islands Bali and Java
Bali = big orchestras, Java = small orchestras
Highest instruments play fast, complicated solos
Gongs signify different sections of music
Magical and spiritual = tie to heaven
Lower the pitch of instruments = longer the note values
Indian classical AoS2
Northern India in Punjab
Learnt through word of mouth
Raga scale
Ravi Shakar
Punjabi lyrics
Improvised melody performed on sitar
Tambura = accompaniment: harmony = drone (usually 2 notes)
Tabla = rhythm section: 2 drums of different sizes
Irish dance AoS3…read more

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Relatively slow tempo
o 2/4 or 4/4 time
o From music of sailors
o Often have dotted rhythms
o Hard shoe dances
Lieder AoS2
German art songs from Romantic period (1820 ­ 1900)
Highly emotional and expressive and very dramatic
Strong lyrical melodies and rich harmony
Frequent changes of key = modulation
Music developed strong connections with Romantic poetry and literature
Written for piano and voice, performed in homes and concert halls
Piano = accompaniment but equally important role as voice
Themes: love, nature, beauty…read more

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Salsa AoS3
Originated in Cuba in 1930, popular in New York
Cuban Son and American big band jazz ­ Son = mix of Spanish and African
4 beats in a bar
Clave rhythm played by claves = offbeat/syncopated
Simple harmony based on repeated chord patterns (chords I, IV, V) in minor key
Infectious improvisation section
Call and response vocals between soloist and chorus
Sonera = soloist, choro = chorus
Walking bass line (staircase up and down)
Instruments: guitar, string bass, bongos, maracas, claves, trumpets, saxophones…read more

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Stylistic walking
Flute, violin, guitar, double bass, bandonen, percussion, piano solos
Waltz AoS3
Originated in Vienna in 1790s
3/4 time, 70bpm
Romantic period
Johann Strauss
Simple harmonies using primary chords
Large symphony orchestras
One chord per bar, bass heard on first beat = oom cha cha
Closed position dancing ­ partners hold each other with both arms
Graceful and elegant
Performed by aristocrats (rich) at balls
Melodies and dances characterised by long, circular flowing movements
Rise and fall
Rubato ­ hold back…read more


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