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African A cappella singing AoS2

A cappella = unaccompanied
Sung in African
Zulu people in South Africa speak Swahili
Songs for occasions: birthdays, weddings, funerals, religious events
Call and response between soloist and chorus
Small intervals between notes of melody (2nds and 3rds)
Ladysmith Black Mambazo ­ all-male choir in…

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Punjabi lyrics
Migrants of Punjab brought their folk music to the UK in 1960s
Influenced by hip-hop, rock, R&B
Performed at parties, festivals, weddings
Follows western musical structure of verse and chorus
Simple repetitive melodies
Danced in groups in traditional costumes
Popular in strong ethnic areas e.g. Birmingham, Bradford

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1750 ­ 1800
Simple melodies with less decoration
Balanced 4 bar phrases (2 bar question, 2 bar answer)
Theme and variations ­ accompaniment: add/remove notes, change metre or tempo
Broken chords ­ alberti bass (arpeggios)
Small orchestras ­ mostly strings, few woodwind and brass ­ timpani = percussion

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Islands Bali and Java
Bali = big orchestras, Java = small orchestras
Highest instruments play fast, complicated solos
Gongs signify different sections of music
Magical and spiritual = tie to heaven
Lower the pitch of instruments = longer the note values

Indian classical AoS2

Northern India in Punjab
Learnt through…

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o Relatively slow tempo
o 2/4 or 4/4 time
o From music of sailors
o Often have dotted rhythms
o Hard shoe dances

Lieder AoS2

German art songs from Romantic period (1820 ­ 1900)
Highly emotional and expressive and very dramatic
Strong lyrical melodies and rich harmony
Frequent changes of…

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Salsa AoS3

Originated in Cuba in 1930, popular in New York
Cuban Son and American big band jazz ­ Son = mix of Spanish and African
4 beats in a bar
Clave rhythm played by claves = offbeat/syncopated
Simple harmony based on repeated chord patterns (chords I, IV, V) in…

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Stylistic walking
Flute, violin, guitar, double bass, bandonen, percussion, piano solos

Waltz AoS3

Originated in Vienna in 1790s
3/4 time, 70bpm
Romantic period
Johann Strauss
Simple harmonies using primary chords
Large symphony orchestras
One chord per bar, bass heard on first beat = oom cha cha


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