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African A cappella singing AoS2

A cappella = unaccompanied
Sung in African
Zulu people in South Africa speak Swahili
Songs for occasions: birthdays, weddings, funerals, religious events
Call and response between soloist and chorus
Small intervals between notes of melody (2nds and 3rds)
Ladysmith Black Mambazo ­ all-male choir in…

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Punjabi lyrics
Migrants of Punjab brought their folk music to the UK in 1960s
Influenced by hip-hop, rock, R&B
Performed at parties, festivals, weddings
Follows western musical structure of verse and chorus
Simple repetitive melodies
Danced in groups in traditional costumes
Popular in strong ethnic areas e.g. Birmingham, Bradford
Dhol…

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1750 ­ 1800
Simple melodies with less decoration
Piano
Balanced 4 bar phrases (2 bar question, 2 bar answer)
Theme and variations ­ accompaniment: add/remove notes, change metre or tempo
Broken chords ­ alberti bass (arpeggios)
Small orchestras ­ mostly strings, few woodwind and brass ­ timpani = percussion
Mozart…

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Islands Bali and Java
Bali = big orchestras, Java = small orchestras
Highest instruments play fast, complicated solos
Gongs signify different sections of music
Magical and spiritual = tie to heaven
Lower the pitch of instruments = longer the note values



Indian classical AoS2

Northern India in Punjab
Learnt through…

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o Relatively slow tempo
o 2/4 or 4/4 time
o From music of sailors
o Often have dotted rhythms
o Hard shoe dances

Lieder AoS2

German art songs from Romantic period (1820 ­ 1900)
Highly emotional and expressive and very dramatic
Strong lyrical melodies and rich harmony
Frequent changes of…

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Salsa AoS3

Originated in Cuba in 1930, popular in New York
Cuban Son and American big band jazz ­ Son = mix of Spanish and African
4 beats in a bar
Clave rhythm played by claves = offbeat/syncopated
Simple harmony based on repeated chord patterns (chords I, IV, V) in…

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Stylistic walking
Flute, violin, guitar, double bass, bandonen, percussion, piano solos




Waltz AoS3

Originated in Vienna in 1790s
3/4 time, 70bpm
Romantic period
Schubert
Schumann
Chopin
Johann Strauss
Simple harmonies using primary chords
Large symphony orchestras
One chord per bar, bass heard on first beat = oom cha cha
Closed…

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