TECTONICS - Modification of event, vulnerability and loss

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  • Modification of event, vulnerability and loss (hazard management)
    • Park's Model - Preparation (pre-disaster), response (1-7 days) Reconstruction (1-12 months) Mitigation (several years)
    • Event (used to reduce extent or magnitude)
      • GIS Mapping
        • predicting events using high technology.
        • used in most places
      • Diverting lava flows
        • Italy, Mount Etna 1983
        • channels, barriers, water cooling systems.
        • keeps people out of danger, low cost
        • only works for low VEI basaltic lava, not extremely dangerous anyway
      • aseismic buildings
        • Japan, 75% of buildings built with events in mind
        • cross-bracing, counter weights, deep foundations, "quake-proof" housing.
        • can prevent collapse, protects people and property
        • high cost for tall structures, old or low-income homes are rarely protected.
      • Land use zoning
        • New Zealand, Mount Tallania
        • preventing building on low-lying coasts or close to volcanoes.
        • Low cost, keeps people safe
        • prevents coastal tourism, requires strict  planning.
      • Tsunami defences
        • Sea walls,  breakwaters.
        • expensive, may be exceeded anyway, ugly
        • reduces damage massively, provides security sense.
    • Vulnerability - increasing resilience of a community
      • Community preparedness
        • earthquake kits (boxes of essentials). Educating in schools and communities
        • low cost (by IGO's), can save lives
        • doesn't prevent property damage, harder to implement in cut-off areas
      • High-tech scientific monitoring
        • predicting eruptions and events (on other mind map)
        • warnings and evacuations save lives
        • costly, may suffer 'cry wolf syndrome'.
      • adaptation
        • moving out of harms way and relocating
        • would save lives and property
        • high populations prevent this, disrupts traditions
    • Loss
      • short term emergency aid
        • 70 rescuers and 2 search dogs to Tohoku, 2011.
        • reduces death toll by saving lives
        • physical difficulty in isolated areas, emergency services poorly equipped in developing
      • long term aid
        • reconstruction plans (Japan, new buildings quake-proof)
        • can build in resilience through better construction methods
        • very expensive, needs are forgotten by media after disaster hit
      • Insurance
        • compensation for loss
        • allows people  to recover economically to pay for re-construction
        • low-income countries may not have this, does not save lives

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