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Carmen Gaywood SJF

Global Distribution of Tectonic Hazards
Tectonic Hazards
Earthquakes and volcanoes can be hazardous if they are affecting people or economy. This often happens in
developed countries with high population.
Primary Hazard Earthquake Volcano
Secondary Hazard Tsunami Volcanic bombs
Ground displacement Ash
Ground movement (waves) Lava
Soil liquefaction…

Page 2

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Carmen Gaywood SJF

Not a hazard out to sea because they're low in height (300mm ish)

Factors Influencing the strength of a Tsunami
1. Duration
2. Wave amplitude, water column displacement and distance travelled
3. Physical geography of the coast ­ water depth and gradient at the shoreline
4. Degree…

Page 3

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Carmen Gaywood SJF



Rocks are magnetised so they face north ­ this can be used to tell how old they are.
Paleomagnetism: The zone of magma `locking in' or `striking' the earths magnetic polarity when it cools. Molten rock
aligns itself to the magnetic north. Scientists can use this tool…

Page 4

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Carmen Gaywood SJF

Range of Impacts from Volcanoes
Local Regional International
Domes Lahars/floods Tsunami
Lateral Blast Health effects of gases Pyroclastic fall
Earthquakes/ Ground Inflation Pyroclastic flows Volcanic Gases
Structural Collapse/ debris avalanche


Pyroclastic Flows
A mixture of gas and hot rock. Contains glass shards, pumice, crystals and ash. Can…

Page 5

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Carmen Gaywood SJF

- Waves stretch areas apart so water falls ­ buildings above fall into spaces that were occupied by water before.


Long term damages Cost of repair

Short term damages Delivery of aid (roads broken etc)




Disaster Risk Equation (used for all disasters)




Things affecting the Risk Equation…

Page 6

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Carmen Gaywood SJF

Resilience after = Cleanup. Speed to get it back to how it was before.

Disaster Risk and Age Index
1. Increasing world risk of hazards.
2. Ageing population.

The young and old can't respond to natural disasters because they don't have economic power.

PAR Model (Pressure and…

Page 7

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Carmen Gaywood SJF

More duration of pressure building = more magnitude
An earthquake where pressure is released in one go is 1 jolt ­ less damaging.
More jolts (duration) = more damaging

Aerial extent
The larger the area affected, the greater the impact.

Vulnerability
Lack of preparation
Low levels of…

Page 8

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Carmen Gaywood SJF

The Impact of Low Development Levels
1. Economic components
- Low Incomes
- Low spending power
- Poor quality of life
- Lack of savings to fall back on
- Lack of insurance
2. Social components
- Poor health
- Poor nutrition
- Low levels of education…

Page 9

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Carmen Gaywood SJF

Economic costs associated with both hazards and disasters of all types have increased significantly since
1940. people claim on insurance more rather than fixing something themselves like in the past.
As we become more globalized we are more affected by things eg disaster in China means there…

Page 10

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Carmen Gaywood SJF




Volcanoes happen along convergent and divergent plate boundaries.

How a volcanologist knows a volcano is going to erupt
Shallow, earth tremors caused by the surface of the crust when magma comes out.

Bulging on the volcano (magma is rising)

Gases will come out of the volcano ­…

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