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Page 1

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Carmen Gaywood SJF

Global Distribution of Tectonic Hazards
Tectonic Hazards
Earthquakes and volcanoes can be hazardous if they are affecting people or economy. This
often happens in developed countries with high population.
Primary Hazard Earthquake Volcano Secondary Hazard Tsunami
Ground displacement Ground movement (waves) Soil liquefaction
Volcanic bombs Ash Lava…

Page 2

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Carmen Gaywood SJF
· Not a hazard out to sea because they're low in height (300mm ish)
Factors Influencing the strength of a Tsunami
1. Duration 2. Wave amplitude, water column displacement and distance travelled 3. Physical
geography of the coast ­ water depth and gradient at the shoreline 4.…

Page 3

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Geophysical
Disaster
Of human or

Event
Economic loss due to
location

Page 4

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Carmen Gaywood SJF
Rocks are magnetised so they face north ­ this can be used to tell how old they are.
Paleomagnetism: The zone of magma `locking in' or `striking' the earths magnetic polarity when
it cools. Molten rock aligns itself to the magnetic north. Scientists can use this tool…

Page 5

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Rayleigh / /

Page 6

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Carmen Gaywood SJF

Range of Impacts from Volcanoes
Local Regional International
Domes Lahars/floods Tsunami
Lateral Blast Health effects of gases Pyroclastic fall
Earthquakes/ Ground Inflation Pyroclastic flows Volcanic Gases
Structural Collapse/ debris avalanche
Pyroclastic Flows
A mixture of gas and hot rock. Contains glass shards, pumice, crystals and ash. Can…

Page 7

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rebounds (bounces back, keeps travelling) and makes ground shaking.
Liquefaction
A secondary hazard that affects loose rocks and sediment. It is what causes buildings to
tilt/settle into the ground.
- Squeezing particles together forces water upwards.

Page 8

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Carmen Gaywood SJF
- Waves stretch areas apart so water falls ­ buildings above fall into spaces that were occupied
by water before.
Long term damages Cost of repair
Short term damages Delivery of aid (roads broken etc)

Disaster Risk Equation (used for all disasters)
Things affecting the Risk Equation…

Page 9

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Carmen Gaywood SJF
Resilience after = Cleanup. Speed to get it back to how it was before.
Disaster Risk and Age Index
1. Increasing world risk of hazards. 2. Ageing population.
The young and old can't respond to natural disasters because they don't have economic power.

PAR Model (Pressure and…

Page 10

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Carmen Gaywood SJF
More duration of pressure building = more magnitude
An earthquake where pressure is released in one go is 1 jolt ­ less damaging.
More jolts (duration) = more damaging
Aerial extent
The larger the area affected, the greater the impact.

Vulnerability
· Lack of preparation
· Low…

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Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Carmen Gaywood SJF

Global Distribution of Tectonic Hazards
Tectonic Hazards
Earthquakes and volcanoes can be hazardous if they are affecting people or economy. This
often happens in developed countries with high population.
Primary Hazard Earthquake Volcano Secondary Hazard Tsunami
Ground displacement Ground movement (waves) Soil liquefaction
Volcanic bombs Ash Lava…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Carmen Gaywood SJF
· Not a hazard out to sea because they're low in height (300mm ish)
Factors Influencing the strength of a Tsunami
1. Duration 2. Wave amplitude, water column displacement and distance travelled 3. Physical
geography of the coast ­ water depth and gradient at the shoreline 4.…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
Geophysical
Disaster
Of human or

Event
Economic loss due to
location

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Carmen Gaywood SJF
Rocks are magnetised so they face north ­ this can be used to tell how old they are.
Paleomagnetism: The zone of magma `locking in' or `striking' the earths magnetic polarity when
it cools. Molten rock aligns itself to the magnetic north. Scientists can use this tool…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Rayleigh / /

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Carmen Gaywood SJF

Range of Impacts from Volcanoes
Local Regional International
Domes Lahars/floods Tsunami
Lateral Blast Health effects of gases Pyroclastic fall
Earthquakes/ Ground Inflation Pyroclastic flows Volcanic Gases
Structural Collapse/ debris avalanche
Pyroclastic Flows
A mixture of gas and hot rock. Contains glass shards, pumice, crystals and ash. Can…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
rebounds (bounces back, keeps travelling) and makes ground shaking.
Liquefaction
A secondary hazard that affects loose rocks and sediment. It is what causes buildings to
tilt/settle into the ground.
- Squeezing particles together forces water upwards.

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Carmen Gaywood SJF
- Waves stretch areas apart so water falls ­ buildings above fall into spaces that were occupied
by water before.
Long term damages Cost of repair
Short term damages Delivery of aid (roads broken etc)

Disaster Risk Equation (used for all disasters)
Things affecting the Risk Equation…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Carmen Gaywood SJF
Resilience after = Cleanup. Speed to get it back to how it was before.
Disaster Risk and Age Index
1. Increasing world risk of hazards. 2. Ageing population.
The young and old can't respond to natural disasters because they don't have economic power.

PAR Model (Pressure and…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
Carmen Gaywood SJF
More duration of pressure building = more magnitude
An earthquake where pressure is released in one go is 1 jolt ­ less damaging.
More jolts (duration) = more damaging
Aerial extent
The larger the area affected, the greater the impact.

Vulnerability
· Lack of preparation
· Low…

Comments

No comments have yet been made