Mitosis/Meosis

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  • Mitosis/Meosis
    • Cell cycle
      • Interphase
        • 23 hours
        • G1 gap
        • S phase (DNA synthesis)
        • G2 gap
      • M phase
        • 1 hour
        • Prophase
        • prometaphase
        • metaphase
        • anaphase
        • telophase
        • cytokinesis
    • Interphase
      • cell grows - doubling protein content
      • organelles double in size or number
      • S Phase - DNA synthesised
      • centrosome replicates
      • G1 and G2 occur - checking cell is ready
    • M phase
      • prophase
        • chromosomes condense
        • mitotic spindle (microtubules and proteins) form
        • centrosomes move apart
        • protein complex forms at the centomere of chromosome
      • prometaphase
        • nuclear membrane breaks down
          • microtubules access chromosomes
        • kinetochore complex
      • metaphase
        • chromosomes allign at equator
        • sister chromatids attach to poles by kinetochore microtubules
      • anaphase
        • cohesive link between sister chromatids released
        • kinetochore microtubules shorten
        • centrosomes move apart
        • sister chromatids pulled to poles
      • Telophase
        • chromatids reach poles
        • new nuclear envelope forms from fragments
        • contractile ring forms around equator
        • two nuclei
      • end of mitosis
    • cytokinesis
      • ring contracts, forming two daughter cells
      • DNA decondenses, cell returns to G1
    • Cytoskeleton
      • increased instability
      • motor proteins involved
      • nuclear lamina (intermediate filaments
        • needs to disassemble prior
      • actin involved in contractile ring
      • microtubules
        • kinetochore microtubules attach to chromosomes
        • grow and shrink during prometa to find target
        • motor proteins (fast and slow) pull chromsomes
        • kinetochore microtubules shorten, pulling chromsomes to poles in ana
    • Controlled
      • 3 checks
        • G1
          • environment check
            • growth factors
            • nutrients
            • cell size
          • DNA damage
        • G2
          • environment check (size)
          • DNA damage
          • replication complete
        • Meta-ana
          • chromosomes attached
    • Meosis
      • half number of chromosomes
      • gametes
      • opportunity to mix traits
      • cell division
        • between pro 1 and meta 1
        • leptotene
          • condense
        • zygotene
          • chromosomes allign and are linked by synapses
        • pachytene
          • recombination
        • diplotene
          • synapses break down
          • pairs linked at cross overs (chiasmata)
        • diakinesis
          • condensing maximum

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