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  • Milgram- Study of Obedience (1963)- Describe
    • Method
      • Aim- how far people would go in obeying an instruction if it involved harming another person
      • Controlled observation
      • Randomly assigned
      • Interaction Lab
      • Sample
        • 40 males between the ages of 20-50
        • New Haven
        • Self selected
        • Wide range of occupations included postal clerks, high school teachers, and educational backgrounds
        • They were paid $4.00 ( and 50c for travel)
      • Thought was a memory experiment
      • Controls
        • No IV and hence the DV was measured by seeing how each ppt responded to obedience
        • Confederates remained the same
        • Same use of prods for every ppt
        • Standardised procedure
    • Procedure
      • 1)Ppt thought they were taking part in memory
      • 2)Taken to lab environment but was controlled observation
      • 3)Drew straws to determine their roles as leaner roles learner or teacher.This was fixed,confederate was always learner
      • 4)Learner strapped into a electric chair
      • 5)Teacher is then taken to different room and shown the electrode which went from 15-450 voltages
      • 6)The learner mainly gave wrong answers
      • 7)When the teacher refused to administer shock the following were said;
        • Prod 1: Please continue.Prod 2: The experiment requires you to continue.Prod 3: It is absolutely essential that you continue.Prod 4: You have no other choice but to continue.
      • 8) The teacher was thoroughly debriefed
    • Conclusions
      • Gradual Commitment
        • The participants became committed after pressing the first volt. the volts had a space of 15, this increase would seem less drastic
      • Contractual Obligation
        • Participants felt obligated to partake in the study as they had previously agreed to partake
        • Felt responsible to carry out the instructions given
        • This influenced why they continued pressing volts even after instructions had stopped
      • Legitimate Authority
        • Lab coat,yale university,legitimate setting,office block,65%
    • Findings
      • Quantitative
        • Predicted that 1-3% of the participants would reach the full 450 volts
        • 40/100% of the participants reached or exceeded 300v
        • 26/65% reached the full voltage of 450v.
        • 8 people had uncontrollable seizures 1 person could not continue
      • Qualitative:
        • Nervous responses such as: sweating, trembling, stuttering, biting lips,
        • 4/40 showed signs of nervous laughing or smiling
        • 3/40 participants even had a seizure caused by the amount of stress they were under.
        • During the experiment most participants showed signs of extreme tension


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