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Key Concepts

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In a situation of a school influence, people often tend to do as they're told by their authority. This is
because they're aware that the authority has more power than them. This process is known as

Defiance, on the other hand, is the opposite of obedience. When the authority…

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Participants who gave Mr Wallace the maximum of 450 volt lethal voltage at the famous
university was 65%
Participants who gave Mr Wallace the max of 450 lethal voltage at the office building was
The fame of the American university increased the level of obedience in the first experiment…

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Authority ­ People with high status and power can only punish people who don't obey them.

The impact of consensus on obedience

When everybody agrees on something
Behaviour of others that makes it impossible not to obey
"the more of them there are, the more obedient we are"
In Milgram's…

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An alternative theory: Dispositional Factors

Situation is irrelevant
Dispositional of the person is more important ­ individual's personality
Dispositional factors are factors which are associated with an individual's personality
People are likely to obey because of their personality
This theory (the authoritarian personality) appeared after the second world war

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Civilian = 33%
These appearance affected the level of obedience

Criticisms of Bickman

There was a lack of control over extraneous variables
It was a field experiment
The e.v might've been: noisy, crowding and weather
It was an opportunity sampling
Participants might've been in a hurry, depressed or absent minded…

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Fulltime staff Fulltime staff

Parttime staff Parttime staff

(Order givers) (Following instructions, obeying)

Keeping orders in prisons

Without a hierarchy or rules in a prison, the prisoners would do whatever they want to and
no responsibility would be taken by anyone
A riot would be caused
Rules and procedures are…


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