Micro-organisms and Food

  • Created by: alanahart
  • Created on: 31-05-15 11:13
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  • Micro-organisms and Food
    • How micro-organisms spoil our food
      • Visible growth of organisms on food, e.g. fungi. Mould grows for a few days before it becomes noticeable as mould.
      • Micro-organisms externally digest, releasing enzymes and absorbing nutrients when food molecules breakdown. Food will smell sweet and turned to mush.
      • Some bacteria produce toxin. Toxin in food can kill, e.g. botulin.
      • Presence of some m.organisms in food can cause infection, e.g. salmonella.
    • How we prevent spoilage
      • Cooking
        • Heat denatures enzymes, killing the m.organisms.
      • Drying, salting and coating in sugar
        • Dehydrate m.organisms as water leaves by osmosis.
      • Smoking
        • Food develops hard and dry outer surface and smoke has anti-bacterial chemicals.
      • Pickling
        • Acidic pH to kill m.organisms by denaturing enzymes.
      • Irradiation
        • Ionising radiation kills m.organisms by disrupting DNA structure.
      • Pasteurising
        • Heat to ~72oC for 15secs and cooling rapidly to kill m.organisms.
      • Cooling and Freezing
        • Slows down enzymes activity so reproduction is slow.


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