Memory 

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  • Memory
    • coding - the way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory
      • Baddely - word list of acoustically similiar words and semanatically similiar
        • STM - easier to remember acoustically similiar words
        • LTM - easier to remember semantically similar words
          • 20 min gap didn't really test LTM
    • duration - a measure of how long a memory lasts before it's no longer available
      • STM - Peterson and Peterson - 3 numbers read to participants, count down for 3 seconds, increases by 3 times each trigram then recall numbers after
        • remember up to 30 seconds
          • testing artificial and displacement
      • LTM - Bahrick 17 to 47 yr olds - recall names of people from yearbook
        • 15 years after graduation = 90% recall. 48 yrs after = 70% recall ----LTM lasts 50 yrs if not infinite
          • may not have met everyone
          • Generic - reliable
    • Capacity - a measure of how much can be held in the memory.
      • STM - Jacobs span measure test. Participants were read numbers then asked to recall until messed up
        • up to 5 - 9 things
          • Individual differences - recall better with age. 8yrs - 6.6 , 19 yrs - 8.6
      • LTM - Unlimited
    • The Multi-store model of memory
      • Sensory memory : Duration of 1-2 secs - information easily lost due to decay : Receives a lot of information, only transfers to STM if gets attention
      • STM : Lost through decay and displacement,   Transferred to LTM through rehearsal
      • LTM :  Lost information was never made permanent
      • Rettrieval - process of moving info from STM to LTM so it's avialable for use
      • HM - operation to remove parts of brain. No STM but can recall LTM - supports idea of 2 seperate areas
      • Model to simple - KF in motor cycle crash - damaged back of brain. Can remeber digits he reads himself but not read to him - suggests two types of stores
    • The working memory model
      • central executive: no storage capacity and controls what other components do
      • Episodic buffer: temporary storage , moves info back and forth, added in 2000
      • Phonological loop: phonological store - inner ear. articulatory process - inner voice
      • Visuo-spatial sketchpad: visual cache - info about form and color. Inner scribe - spatial and movement info
      • Central executive. EVR had cerebral tumour removed. Could do well in tasks that required reason - suggest CE intact. Had poor decision making skills - damaged CE
      • KF
    • Types of long term memory
      • Episodic - memory of personal experience has specific details, context, emotion
      • Semantic - general knowledge and facts.
      • Procedural - memory concerned about skill. acquired through reputation  and practice
      • Different parts of brain are active when different types of LTM are active during brain scans
      • Research from Alzheimer's paitents found they could form new semantic memories but not episodic
      • HM could  retain previous LTM after surgery. He could form new procedual memories but not episodic/semantic
    • Forgetting - interference
      • Retrocative interfernce - current attempts to learn something interferes with past learning
        • Muller - learnt list of nonsense syllables for 6 mins. group 1 began recalling words right away. group 2 given another task before recall.
          • Group 2 didn't do as well when recalling. The retention interval interfered with what they previously learnt
      • Proactive interference - when past learning interferes with current attempts to learn something
        • Underwood - participants do not learn words at the end of a list as they do at the beginning
      • Research is artificial - lab setting+fake lists - participants don't  relate to words - lack of motivation which allow interference to have stronger effects
      • Memory was tested again  after 4 hours recognition showed. suggests memory are temporarily not accessible rather than lost
      • Only explains some situation - special conditions are required - doesn't explain everyday forgetting
    • Forgetting - retrival failure
      • The encoding specificity principle memory is most effective if information that was present at encoding is available at retrieval
        • Tulving and pearlstone  participants had to learn 48 words belonging to 12 catigories (apple,fruit). free recall = 40% accurate, cues= 60%
      • Context-dependent forgetting
        • Godden and Baddeley gave word lists to scuba divers on land or in water. Highest recall was in the context they originally learnt it in.
      • State-dependent forgetting: a mental state acts as a cue
        • participants remember word list when sober or drunk. Findings suggest that info learnt when drunk is more accessible when drunk again.
      • Research is based on word lists. In real life when learning there are more complex associations that are less easily triggered by cues. Context effects elimanated when learning meaningful memories
      • There is a lot of supporting research
    • Eye witness testimony - misleading information
      • Leading questions (loftus and palmer)
        • 45 students shown 7 films of different traffic accidents. Participants then asked how fast the car was going when it "hit, contacted, bumped, collided smashed"
          • Speed estimate changed depending on verb used. Smashed 40 mph - contacted 31 mph
        • Participants divided into 3 groups and shown film. 1 week later asked if saw broken glass. if used the verb smashed - most likely to say yes. contacted least.
      • Post-event discussion
        • Conformity effect : co-witnesses may reach a consensus view of what happened
          • Gabbert - participants in pairs, both watched different videos of same event. Those that discussed what they saw ended up recalling details from the other video
        • Repeat Interviewing
          • LaRooy - each time an eyewitness recalls event they could in cooperate things interview said in their answers.
      • College students asked to evaluate adverts about Disneyland. Participants were assigned bugs bunny, Ariel or control group. Those in bugs or Ariel were more likely to report shakening hands with character when child
      • Witnesses to armed robbery gave accurate reports of crime 4 months after the event despite being asked 2 misleading questions. suggest  misleading info has less effect IRL.
      • EWT mistakes are the largest factor for innocent people being arrested. researchers have warned justice systmn and now DNA has to confirm EWT.
    • EWT - Anxiety
      • Johnson + scott - participants sat in waiting room and heared heated argument. First condition man came out with pen and greasy hand. 2 condition man came out with paper knife and blood.
        • When asked to identify man in 1st condition - 49% accurate. 2nd condition - 23% accurate. The weapon distracted participants.
          • Pickle said the weapon was was due to surprise. Theif in hairsalon - scissors (high threat, low surprise) Handgun (high threat + surprise) wallet (low threat + surprise) raw chicken
      • Christian and Hubinett - RL bank robbing. Found that witnesses threaten gave more accurate results then onlookers
        • In real life - Lab settings don't create the same levels of anxiety.
    • The cognitive interview
      • Report everything  - memories are interconnect and may cue others
      • Mental reinstatement  - make memories more accessible.
      • changing the order
      • Changing perspective
      • Mine and Bull - interviewed undergraduateand kids. 1 compent of C1 - no difference compared to control group. when interviewed with "report everything" and "mental reinstatement" - higher recall
      • Training detectives used CI compared to those who used regular techniques go up to 41% more info
      • Kohken found there was 81% increase in correct info but a 61% increase in false info.

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