Physics on the go Materials Section 2

This covers Viscosity, Behaviour of Solids and Flow

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  • Created by: Edward
  • Created on: 27-12-12 15:33
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  • Materials Section 2
    • Behaviour of solids
      • Brittle materials
        • Break suddenly without deforming plastically
      • Ductile materials
        • Shows plastic deformation
        • The cross sectional area decreases before it breaks, ductile yielding
        • Can change shape without losing strength
      • Tough Materials
        • Can withstand sudden impact forces without breaking
        • Can be very strong and withstand great stress before breaking
        • Examples include rubber, steel or kevlar
        • Not brittle
      • Hard materials
        • Resists plastic deformation, not just from tensile stress but also from dents and scratches
        • Example - Diamond
      • Malleable materials
        • Show large plastic deformation without breaking
        • Not brittle, though not necessarily tough
        • Can be reshaped without fracturing
        • May lose strength
      • Stiff materials
        • High resistance to bending and scratching
      • Llimit of proprtionality
        • After this the graph starts to bend, stress and strain are no longer proportional to each other
      • Elastic limit
        • The point where the material starts to behave plastically
      • Yield point
        • The stress beyond which the material becomes plastic
    • Flow
      • Laminar flow
        • Velocity of the flow is constant over time
        • All fluid elements flow in the same direction
        • Usually occurs when fluid is flowing slowly
      • Turbulent flow
        • Velocity of the flow varies with time
        • Fluid elements get mixed up
        • Fluid often  flows around miniature whirlpools called Eddy currents
    • Viscosity
      • Viscosity of a fluid changes with temperature
        • Viscosity decreases as temperature increases
      • Viscous drag
        • The friction between the surface of the object and the fluid
      • Stokes' Law
        • Viscous drag
          • The friction between the surface of the object and the fluid
        • F=6(pi)nrv
          • n=viscosity of the fluid (Nsm^-2)
          • r=radius of the object (m)
          • v=the speed the object is moving at (ms^-1)
      • Upthrust
        • Weight of fluid displaced
        • Weight=upthrust +viscous drag


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