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Superposition- The resultant displacement at any point is found by adding displacement
Interference- Constructive: Two sources in fixed phase, path difference is an even
number of half wavelengths.
Destructive: Two sources in fixed phase, path difference is an odd number
of half wavelengths.
Coherent- Two sources are coherent if the waves emitted from them are phase-linked
i.e. zero phase difference, therefore must have the same frequency.
Diffraction- Increase slit width =brighter
More slits = Max brighter- more light
Max sharper- constructive interference only happens at certain
Conditions for equilibrium- The vector sum of the forces must be zero
The sum of the moments about a point must be zero
Moment- Is the product of force and perpendicular distance from the line of action of the
force to the pivot
Equilibrium (principle of moments)- Clockwise moments = anticlockwise moments
Couple- Is the product of one force and the perpendicular distance between the lines of
action of the forces.
Area under VT graph is distance travelled
Throwing objects- a= -g when going up
v= 0 at top of flight
u= 0 if dropped
Know: v= final velocity
u= initial velocity
a= acceleration= g= gravity= 9.81 unless otherwise listed
a=change in v/change in t
Newtons first law- "Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that
state of motion unless an external force is applied to it"
Newtons second law- "Force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum" F=MA
Newtons third law- "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction"
Work- Force x displacement in line of action of the force W=Fs x sin theta
Power- Rate of doing work P=W/T and the product of force and velocity P=FV
Ep top = Ek bottom assumes no energy is lost due to friction as heat
Density- mass/ volume
Hookes law- F=ke k= spring constant e=extension
Force y by extension x graph steeper the gradient, stiffer the material
Are under force by extension graph is elastic strain energy E=1/2xFxe
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Youngs modulus- Stress y by strain x graph
When line of best fit is linear it is elastic behaviour
When line of best fit is bent it is plastic behaviour
Ductile material goes from elastic to plastic behaviour
Brittle material is elastic behaviour, reaches the elastic limit and
Are under stress strain graph is the energy stored per unit volume
Tensile stress- F/A F= force A= average cross sectional area Pa
Tensile strain- e/l e= extension l= original length no units
Youngs modulus- Tensile…read more