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Hooke's Law
Density () is measured in kg m-3. It can be calculated using the equation below;

= density in kg m-3
m = mass in kg
V = volume in m3

Hooke's Law

The extension of a spring or wire is directly proportional to the force applied provided the…

Page 2

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F = force in newtons (N)
L = change in length in metres (m)
k = spring constant (N m-1)

The limit of proportionality is the is the point beyond which Hooke's law is no longer true when stretching a material.

The elastic limit is the point beyond which the…

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Stress & Strain

The stress applied to a material is the force per unit area applied to the material. The maximum stress a material can stand before it breaks is called the breaking stress
or ultimate tensile stress.

Tensile means the material is under tension. The forces acting on…

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L = the limit of proportionality, Hooke's law applies up to this point.
E = elastic limit, beyond this point the material is permanently stretch and it will not go back to its original length. Elastic behaviour is when a material returns to
its original length, plastic behaviour is when…

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The energy stored in the stretch wire or spring is the area under the force-extension graph as we can see in the equation below.

E = elastic strain energy in joules (J)
F = force in newtons (N)
L = change in length in metres (m)

Stretching rubber

When rubber…

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Young Modulus
What is a modulus?
A modulus is a numerical value, which represents a physical property of a material .

What is the Young Modulus?
It is the modulus of elasticity. This means it is a number which represents how easy it is to deform (stretch a material).


Page 7

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L = change in length in metres (m)

Measurement of the Young Modulus

The Young Modulus for a wire can be measured using this equipment. The reference wire and test wire are hung from the ceiling. The reference wire supports a vernier
scale which will measure the extension of the…


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