Manteca- Dizzy Gillespie

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  • Manteca- Dizzy Gillespie
    • Background
      • Dizzy Gillespie a self-taught trumpet/ trombone player from S. Carolina
      • Played in bands in jazz clubs + concert performances, tried to get a record contract for radio broadcasts
      • Famous for Afro-Cuban and Bebop styles, rather than normal swing style
        • Bebop developed with Charlie Parker, based on swing rhythms
      • Need for big bands decreased during WWII
      • Large big bands which pre-composed music replaced by bebop's fast improvised solos
      • Cu-bop created after writing Afro-Cuban jazz pieces with Chano Pozo, after expressing an interest in Latin American rhythms
    • Band
      • Dizzy Gillespie- Trumpet-Vocals
      • Benny Bailey, Dave Burns, Elmon Wright, Lammar Wright Jr.- Trumpet
      • Ted Kelly, Bill Shepherd- Trombone
      • John Brown, Howard Johnson- Alto Sax
      • 'Big Nick' Nicholas, Joe Gayles- Tenor Sax
      • Cecil Payne- Baritone Sax
      • John Lewis- Piano
      • Al McKibbon- String Bass
      • Kenny Clarke- Drums
      • Chano Pozo- Congas
    • Structure
      • Fusion of typical 32 bar jazz song form and ostinato based Latin jazz. Bb major with blues notes
      • Intro
        • 28 bars (22+2+4)
        • Build up of texture, starting with congas + bass vamp
        • Straight quavers, irregular accents
        • 22 bars static harmony then trumpet solo
      • Chorus 1
        • A (refrain): Sax/trumpet call + response, 2 barrs chord changes, repeated
        • 40 bars (8x5)
        • B (bridge): Constant chord changes, saxes answered by brass, swing rhythm. Walking bass. +8 bars to move to Bb
        • B1: Constant chord changes, trumpet solo
        • A: repeated after B1
      • Interlude
        • 10 bars
        • Compressed intro, builds up quickly. Trombones + bassswap vamps
      • Chorus 2
        • 40 bars (8x5)
        • C (refrain): Chord changes under ten. sax solo, chord changes with walking bass
        • B (bridge): Chord changes throughout, trumpets answered by saxes
        • B1: Chord changes, trumpet solo
      • Outro
        • 16 bars (10+2+4)
        • Reverse of intro, layers of vamps dying out
    • Key Features
      • Guajeos
        • Afro-Cuban ostinatos
      • Swing features
        • Big band, some swing rhythms, walking bass
      • Afro-Cuban features
        • Use of congas, static harmony of intro, interlude and A section, son clave (2:3) rhythm
      • Gillespie's extreme pitch range and agile/virtuosic playing
      • Non-harmony notes in solos, unconventional harmony
      • Variety in articulation, tone and inflection

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