Sustainable Cities - London

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  • Created by: ZodiacRat
  • Created on: 06-06-15 17:07
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  • London
    • Transport and communications
      • Public transport
        • Between 1997 and 2004, rail passenger demand rose by 22%, while capacity only rose by 13%.
        • Overcrowding on the underground and national rail is widespread.
        • Public transport demand is predicted to grow faster than the current rate of capacity enhancements.
      • Cars
        • The dominant mode of transport
        • 40% of all journeys are by car.
        • 41% of workers living in London use the car as their main mode of travel to work.
        • In outer London 50% of all journeys are by car.
        • Set to be an additional 400,000 cars in London by 2025.
      • Foot/cycle
        • Over 50% of tube journeys in central London are quicker on foot, but people can easily can lost on foot or bike.
        • City's roads date back to medieval times and are twisty/short. Google Maps has made it slightly easier to navigate.
        • London tube map gives mistaken impressions about distance.
      • Communications
        • Video confferencing has reduced the need for transport.
        • London has the greatest access to the internet compared with all other areas of the UK (80%).
        • Digital divide between the rich and poor.
    • Disparities in wealth
      • Inequality
        • Most unequal city in the developed world, richest tenth of the population amassing 273 times the wealth owned by the bottom.
        • Alarming health gap - life expectancy at birth rising annually in richest groups, almost no rise for the poorest.
        • Female life expectancy in Kensington: 89 years
        • Female life expectancy in Newham: 80.5 years
      • Unemployment
        • Higher unemployment rate than the rest of the UK (9.9% in 2011).
        • Large numbers of people in economically active range.
        • Resident labour force is supplemented by commuters.
        • 1/5 of London jobs are filled by people outside of the city.
      • Youth unemployment
        • Number of youth not in employment, education or training has jumped by 26,380 since 2008.
        • In 2008 the number of 16 to 24 year olds claiming jobseeker's allowance was 32,945 and has since risen by at least 20,000.
        • All 32 London boroughs have seen a rise in the number of young people claiming the benefit since 2008.
        • Youth unemployment has more than doubled in areas such as Croydon, Ealing and Barnet since 2008.
      • House prices
        • Average price at the end of 2011 was around £400,000, Kensington had an average of over £1.3 million, while Barking and Dagenham had an average of £180,000.
        • 50% higher than the national figure.
        • Lack of affordable homes, more people now living alone there has been a trend towards more, but smaller, households, which increases the demand.
    • Areal extent
      • Urban sprawl
        • Expansion of urban areas into surrounding non-urban areas.
        • Urbanisation encroaches on the countryside and has detrimental environmental impacts.
        • Brownfield sites are now favoured.
        • Increase in wealth and the number of households.
        • Transport improvements, increase in car ownership.
        • Shorter working hours.
      • Pressure to build on greenbelt
        • People want to live in greenfield areas
        • Not enough room for housing and overcrowing.
        • Parts of city require refurbishment.
        • Growing number of migrants and too little land available.
        • Concentrated pressure on resources
        • More money in city so want to spend money on buildings/land.
        • High property prices in central London.
        • Demand and prices rising.
        • Longer life expectancy and more single-person households, higher divorce rate, people getting married later - careers over settling down.
        • Aesthetic, and expensive to clear brownfield sites.
        • In 2007, government planned to build 240,000 new homes every year until 2016.
    • Quality of environment
      • Creates its own environmental problems.
      • Air pollution, known to cause the premature deaths of about a thousand Londoners per year.
      • More pollution from cars as households are owning more.
      • Traffic congestion adds to pollution with cars being stationary for long periods of time.
      • Disposal of waste is an issue. Collecting and disposing is a huge task with enormous environmental and economic costs.
      • Improved recycling performance, but most boroughs fail to meet the average rates achieved across the UK.
      • Some boroughs achieve more than 40% but some fail to even meet the 2007 target of 20%.
      • Costs £580 million per year to manage London's waste. If London recycled 60% of its waste, £63 million could be saved each year.
      • Landfill capacity is also due to expire within London by 2021, space is expected to run out by 2025.

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