Lipids Mindmap

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  • Lipids
    • Fatty Acids
      • Consists of one carboxyl group at the end of a hydrocarbon with at least 4 carbons.
      • Mainly hydrophobic
      • Dehydration synthesis reactions form an ester linkage between the  COOH group and OH group of an alchohol.
      • Can be saturated or unsaturated.
        • Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have significant effects on dietary fat appearance, taste, digestion and human health.
    • Phospholipids
      • Phospholipids form a lipid membrane protecting the cells by providing a selective barrier that regulates the movement inside and out of the cell.
      • They are slightly insoluble in water with one or more polar functional group.
      • The mainly hydrophobic structure makes most fats insoluble in water.
        • However phospholipids have a special monomer (strongly polar or ionic phosphate) that adds solubility to one end of the lipid.
      • Includes two fatty acids and one glycerol molecule.
        • Attached to the third hydroxyl of glycerol is a phosphate group.
      • Lack polarity and is strongly hydrophobic.
      • Phospholipids form liposomes in which phospholipid molecules form a double layer in a large spherical structure.
    • Lipids are insoluble biomolecules defined by an overall lack of polarity for solubility in water-based solutions.
    • Lipids play vital roles in many cellular processes.
      • Energy Storage
      • Structural Support
      • Protection
      • Communication
    • Waxes
      • Contain two monomers of a fatty acid and an alcohol.
      • Waxes provide protective barriers to prevent water loss and to protect cells.
      • They protect seeds and nutrients inside plant fruits and coat the surface of plant leaves (waxy cuticle) to prevent water loss.
        • Bees synthesize beeswax honeycombs for storing food and protecting offspring.
      • Waxes prevent dehydration from body surfaces of insects and repel water on the surface of feathers and some animal furs.
    • Steroids
      • Class of lipids containing 4 fused carbon rings.
      • Steroid molecules do not contain a fatty acid chain.
      • Usually contain one or a few functional groups including: hydroxyls, carbonyls or carboxyls.
      • Cholesterol and other steroids containing a hydroxyl group are called sterols.
        • Found in animal cell membranes.
      • Different type of steroids include:
        • Steroid Hormones (Oestrogen, Testosterone) control reproductive processes.
        • Bile Salts
        • Fat-soluble vitamins.
        • Anabolic steroids stimulate muscle growth and increase the development of secondary sex character-istics.


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