Cell ultrastructure mindmap

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  • Cell ultrastructure
    • Prokaryote: No nucleus; double membrane; single chromosome; simple structure.
    • Eukaryote: Nucleus; single or double membrane; multiple chromosomes; complex structure
    • Golgi body: Produces secretory enzymes, packed into secretory vesicles; secretes carbohydrates; produces glycoprotein; transports and stores lipids; forms lysosomes.
    • Nucleus
      • Contains double membrane (nuclear envelope), nucleolus, nucloplasm, chromatin (floating chromosomes) and nuclear pores.
      • Contains DNA for protein synthesis.
      • Nucleolus synthesises ribosomal RNA for ribosomes.
    • Mitochondria: Double membrane; inner membrane folds inwards to form cristae. Space between matrix is cristae.
      • Respiration occurs in matric and inner membrane. ATP is produced. DNA and ribosomes are also contained for reproduction.
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
      • RER attached to nuclear membrane. Covered in ribosomes (hence 'rough'). Used for protein synthesis and transport. Pathway of RNA from nucleus to ribosomes.
      • SER has no ribosomes (hence 'smooth') and is less uniformed  in shape. Synthesises lipids and steroids.
    • Lysosome
      • Single membrane containing catabolic enzymes which are released into the cell if damaged.
    • Chloroplast
      • Carries out photosynthesis and contains starch, DNA and ribosomes.
      • Contains stacks of thylakoids (fluid-filled discs). Stacks of thylakoids are known as 'grana'. Chlorophyll pigments are on the membrane of the thylakoids.
      • Double membrane.
    • Centrioles are found only in animal cells and are used for cell division.
    • Vacuole: Rigidised the plant cell when turgid. Necessary for opening and closing stomata.
    • Nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA and (70S) ribosomes.


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