Les Années Chirac (2002-2007)

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  • Les Années Chirac (2002-2007)
    • Jean-Pierre Raffarin's Government
      • In the 2002 parliamentary elections, the UMP triumphed, winning 362 seats out of 577
        • The PS kept 150 seats but the PCF collapsed and only won 22
          • The greens only gained 2 or 3 seats
        • The right had regained power and the "Gauche Plurielle" had officially ended
          • After 5 years of cohabitation the French people were clearly fed up
            • The impression was that the "Guache Plurielle" had halted reform as there was always a rivalry between the President and the PM
              • The French people had decided that they preferred to give JC a majority so that he could govern without problem
        • Could be described as a landslide vicotry
      • The 2002 government was a positive moment for France as JMlP didn't win, leading to a temporary celebration of Chirac's presidency
        • Chirac named Jean-Pierre Raffarin as PM
          • Jean-Pierre Raffarin's Government
            • In the 2002 parliamentary elections, the UMP triumphed, winning 362 seats out of 577
              • The PS kept 150 seats but the PCF collapsed and only won 22
                • The greens only gained 2 or 3 seats
              • The right had regained power and the "Gauche Plurielle" had officially ended
                • After 5 years of cohabitation the French people were clearly fed up
                  • The impression was that the "Guache Plurielle" had halted reform as there was always a rivalry between the President and the PM
                    • The French people had decided that they preferred to give JC a majority so that he could govern without problem
              • Could be described as a landslide vicotry
            • The 2002 government was a positive moment for France as JMlP didn't win, leading to a temporary celebration of Chirac's presidency
              • Chirac named Jean-Pierre Raffarin as PM
                • Raffarin was a former minister and President of the Central region.
                  • He had a rural and regional image
                    • Dealt with artisans, tradesmen and small-businesses
                    • J-PR said he wanted to represent "la France d'en-bas" (Grassroot France)
                      • He thought he could be a voice of "the little people" who were ignored by the French government, and reengage them with French politics
                        • Wanted to reduce France's public deficit, which was at 50billion Euros in 2002
                          • Carried out tough reforms on the health and retirement systems which were all in deficit and crisis
                            • On 15th March 2004 the "loi sur la laïcité was passed
                              • Was a bill to stop the use of any prominenet religious symbols in public schools and buildings
                              • An appendix to the 1905 law of the separation of Church and State
                      • Also focused on reinforcing the sate's authority
                        • Nicolas Sarkozy as Home Secretary did this by focusing on tackling crime
          • Raffarin was a former minister and President of the Central region.
            • He had a rural and regional image
              • Dealt with artisans, tradesmen and small-businesses
              • J-PR said he wanted to represent "la France d'en-bas" (Grassroot France)
                • He thought he could be a voice of "the little people" who were ignored by the French government, and reengage them with French politics
                  • Wanted to reduce France's public deficit, which was at 50billion Euros in 2002
                    • Carried out tough reforms on the health and retirement systems which were all in deficit and crisis
                      • On 15th March 2004 the "loi sur la laïcité was passed
                        • Was a bill to stop the use of any prominenet religious symbols in public schools and buildings
                        • An appendix to the 1905 law of the separation of Church and State
                • Also focused on reinforcing the sate's authority
                  • Nicolas Sarkozy as Home Secretary did this by focusing on tackling crime
      • Foreign Policy
        • In 2003 the USA invaded Iraq without UN agreement
          • This created massive tensions between the USA and France as France openly did not support this invasion
            • France was committed to stop the US invasion
              • US felt as if France had betrayed them
                • There was a boycott of French products and a lot of anti-French propaganda
                  • In the Whitehouse they changed the name of their French fires to 'Freedom Fries'
                    • There was a backlash on every level of society
                      • The leader of the house of representatives wanted to implement sanctions against France
                        • Colin Powell vs. Dominique de Villepan in UN council
        • The arrival of 10 new memebers to the EU in 2004 with (almost) all  from Eastern Europe
          • Until this point in time France and Germany were the driving force and the main powers within the EU, these 10 new memebers diluted power and authority
            • A lot of these new countires also supported the US ans UK invasion of Iraq and so France became a lot more isolated  within the EU
              • For the first time in the history of the EU, France felt as if it was losing it's influence
                • There was also an inability to reach a common policy over Israel and Palestine in the EU
                  • Left many French people disillusioned over the institution due to this loss of influence
      • Raffarin's Failure
        • The French public became resentful over the reforms  to tackle the deficit on the pension system and tax raises
          • In the March 2004 elections, the PS took control of almost all French regions except in Alsace and Corsica
            • It was an electoral catastrophe for the UMP
              • JC and his party were rejected by the french people and Chrirac was forced to change PM
                • On 31st May 2005, Dominique de Villepin was named PM
                • Around 2003 JC was very popular, but by 2005 his popularity had receded and the French people became frustrated
                  • During the European Constitution vote Chirac organised a TV debate with young people
                    • There was a clear disconnect between JC and the youth involved
                      • His plan to encourage youth vote had backfired
        • On 29th May 2005, 54.67% of French people rejected by referendum the treaty of the European Constitution
          • The Contitution dealt with the universal principles of the EU
            • This was the first 'no' vote the French people had given over Europe
      • Dominique de Villepin's Government
        • Former Foreign Secretary in 2003
          • Against the Iraq War- Clashed with Colin Powell
        • Wanted to fight against unemployment by making the job market more flexible and helping to create jobs
          • The UK and Germany had already implanted reforms to help the job market but France had not done the same
          • Created the CNE (Contrat Nouvelle Embauche)
            • This was a simplified version of a job contract
            • Open ended job contract with a longer probationary period of 2 years
              • This was better for businesses as it made it easier for them to make people redundant
          • Created the CPE (Contrat Première Embauche)
            • Was similar to the CNE but for people under the age of 26
              • A lot of young people protested against this as they said it was 'cheap labour' and abusing the power of young people who didn't have security
              • Due to the fact that France had a problem with unqualified youg people who weren't able to find a job
          • The law on "equal opportunities" (l'égalité des chances) was passed on 31st March 2006
            • Designed to fight against workplace discrimination
            • Made people's CV's anonymous in order to allow young French people from an immigrant background access into the workplace
              • The problem still existed but it was an attempt at solving it
                • Riots were very serious and a curfew had to be enforced, BUT theydid rais awareness of the discrimination that young people form an immigration background faced
            • Was a reaction to the riots which took place in the banlieus
              • Riots were very serious and a curfew had to be enforced, BUT theydid rais awareness of the discrimination that young people form an immigration background faced
        • October-November riots in 2005
          • The law on "equal opportunities" (l'égalité des chances) was passed on 31st March 2006
            • Designed to fight against workplace discrimination
            • Made people's CV's anonymous in order to allow young French people from an immigrant background access into the workplace
              • The problem still existed but it was an attempt at solving it
              • Was a reaction to the riots which took place in the banlieus
          • The 2007 Presidential Elections
            • On 11th March 2007, JC announced that he would not run for president for a third term
            • On 6th May 2007, Nicolas Sarkozy, the candidate for the UMP won the Presiential election against Ségolène Royal (PS) with 53.06% of the vote
              • On 16th May Sarkozy officially succeeds JC and named François Fillon the PM
              • J-Mlp did run in the 2007 Presidential election but only gained 10% of the votes
                • This could be because of NS' tough stance on law and order and immigration which absorbed voters from the far right

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