Les années De Gaulle (1958-1965)

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  • Created on: 12-05-18 16:07
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  • Les années De Gaulle (1958-1965)
    • The fall of the IVème Republic
      • Politically weak
        • Constant instability of Parliament
      • Refusal to abandon Algeria
        • "L'Algérie, c'est la France." Home Secretary, François Mitterand
        • Attempt to 'pacify' Algeria
          • Restablish order in Algeria
          • Combat FLN (Front Libération Nationale)
            • Supression
            • Torture
            • Population displacement
      • Fall of Mollet's government in May 1957
      • Lack of political power in Paris  led to the Army taking control of Algiers.
        • Attempt to 'pacify' Algeria
          • Restablish order in Algeria
          • Combat FLN (Front Libération Nationale)
            • Supression
            • Torture
            • Population displacement
        • Politically weak
          • Constant instability of Parliament
        • Creation of a committee for 'Salut Publique'
          • Run by Generals Salan and Massu
        • Created an emergency government type situation. Threatened a military coup.
          • 15th May 1958- Salan called on DG to return to power.
            • Thought De Gaulle was the only one to return order to France and keep French Algeria
            • De Gaulle agreed to return under 2 conditions
              • Temporary exceptional powers
              • Create a new constitution
                • Fall of Mollet's government in May 1957
    • The Arrival of Power
      • De Gaulle recalled power in order to Resolve the Algerian Crisis
        • Gaullist party (UNR) won the parliamentary elections
          • Named Michel Debré as his prime minister
            • Lawmaker and brains behind the new constitution
      • DG also submitted a new constitution to the French vote
        • Gained 79% approval
          • Voters felt France needed strong leadership after the weak IVème Republic
        • The president of the republic was the cornerstone of the Vème republic.
          • Certain MPs felt ti was a threat to democracy.
            • Historically whenever France's Head of State had strong powers it led to a Coup D'état
              • Pétain => Vichy was still very recent
      • DG elected president by Electoral College on 21st December 1958
        • Named Michel Debré as his prime minister
          • Lawmaker and brains behind the new constitution
    • Resolving the Algerian Crisis (1958-1962)
      • In 1959, DG felt that the government needed to take back control form the Army as it had too much power.
        • DG remained ambiguous over his stance on Algeria until 16th September 1959 when in a televised address he said he was in favour of an Independent Algeria
          • DG wanted France to be a world power and recognised that this couldn't be achieved when it was at War.
          • Massive milestone
          • Proposed three options: total independence, total intergration or association, the latter which DG supported.
          • Decision was not supported by the army, who felt it was a betrayal and created anger
            • Led to the "semaine des barricades" from 24th January to 1st February 1960
              • DG kept a strong stance on the issue
                • Reaffirmed his power as president
                  • Appeared on TV in his general's uniform
                • His new presidential powers allowed the government to resolve the riots and demonstrations quickly
              • 22 people died
            • General Massu did an unauthorised press report stating that the Army will never support an independent Algeria
              • Led to the "semaine des barricades" from 24th January to 1st February 1960
                • DG kept a strong stance on the issue
                  • Reaffirmed his power as president
                    • Appeared on TV in his general's uniform
                  • His new presidential powers allowed the government to resolve the riots and demonstrations quickly
                • 22 people died
              • DG immediately removed him from his position
      • Stop the power of the FLN
        • By using "Harkis"- Algerians who sympathised with the French
          • Infiltrate and spy on the FLN
      • On 8th January 1961, Algeria's independence is approved by over 75% of the French population in a referendum
        • Could be because a lot of French men had been sent to Algeria for their National Service, and so a lot of French families had been affected
          • People had had enough
        • Vote provoked a last attempt to block Algerian independence
          • An attempt to take over Algiers, take control of the country and stop it's independence
          • Led by Generals Challe, Jouhaud, Zeller and Salan on 22nd April 1961
          • DG benefitted from the support of the majority of the Army and civil servants so the revolt failed
        • Algeria officially gained independence on 3rd July 1962
    • Modernising France and the Republic
      • DG wanted to quickly turn over a new leaf form colonisation and push France towards economic advancement
      • Georges Pompidou was named Prime Minister on 14th April 1962
        • Not a political image
        • Banker who worked for the Rothschilds
        • Embody a new, modern, industrial, post-colonial France
      • French people gained universal suffrage in December 1965
        • DG wanted the Vème Republic to survive past him
          • Has a distrust of political parties, he thought they would vote for a weak president in order to regain parliamentary power
            • The people voting for the president would ensure the popular legitimacy of the President
              • ensure that the president would remain a strong personality

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