Les années De Gaulle (1965-1969)

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  • Created on: 14-05-18 09:34
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  • Les années De Gaulle (1965-1969)
    • December 1965 Presidential Election
      • First Presidential election in France voted in through universal suffrage.
      • The SFIO and the PCF decided to unite against DG
        • Supported François Mitterand
          • De facto leader of the left for almost 20-30 years
        • Led to a bipolarisation in French politics
      • The vote had to go to the second round
        • DG won the election with 55% but he was disappointed
          • The result wasn't as strong as he had hoped for as Mitterrand also did well (45%)
            • Led to a new split between left and right in French politics
              • Led to a bipolarisation in French politics
              • Gaullists on the Centre-right
              • Socialists and communists on the left
            • From 1967 support for the Gaullist party weakened
              • More people moved towards the more progressive left, however, the socialists didn't get into power until the early 1980s
          • The Gaullists needed to form a coalition with the Répulicains Indépendants
            • Led by Valery Giscard d'Estaing
        • DG used neo-chaos and scare tactics to say that part politics were trying to weaken Vème Republic
          • Said that Mitterand was a product of partisan political parties
            • Described him as the 'devil in the confessional'
              • Like a Trojan horse trying to destroy the Vème Republic from the inside.
          • DG  saw himself at the helm of the Vème Republic, without him the Repulic would not be able to survive.
            • DG believed that the reason why the Vème Republic worked for the past 7 years was because he didn't belong to a political party
      • DG used neo-chaos and scare tactics to say that part politics were trying to weaken Vème Republic
        • Said that Mitterand was a product of partisan political parties
          • Described him as the 'devil in the confessional'
            • Like a Trojan horse trying to destroy the Vème Republic from the inside.
        • DG  saw himself at the helm of the Vème Republic, without him the Repulic would not be able to survive.
          • DG believed that the reason why the Vème Republic worked for the past 7 years was because he didn't belong to a political party
      • 85% of the public voted
        • Largest ever voter turnout in France
    • DG's foreign policy
      • 'Politique de gradeur'
        • Wanted to restore France's image as a great nation.
          • After the Algerian war DG was obsessed with France regaining its prestige.
        • Wanted to ensure France's national independence
          • Did this via asserting military independence
            • 13th February 1960 France acquired the atomic bomb
              • Wanted France to break the domination of the US and USSR
              • After the humiliation of French occupation, he wanted France to again be respected as a military power
          • Wanted France to break the domination of the US and USSR
        • Wanted France to be neutral and independent of the 2 superpowers
          • DG wanted France to be the 3rd alternative
            • Wanted countries that weren't aligned with the USA or the USSR to reunite under/with France
              • Wanted France to be a World Power
      • France showed ambivalence towards the USA
        • On 7th March 1966, France quit NATO
        • DG wanted to limit the power of the dollar
          • Withdrew French money form the US
          • Wanted to repay French debt towards the Americas
        • Blocked the UK joining the EEC
          • Thought UK was a 'Trojan horse' for the US
        • HOWEVER France did support the US in times of crisis ie. Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis
        • DG used his anti-Americanism as a tool to legitimise the Vème Republic
          • Said that France used to be weak and dependant on US influence and money during the IVème Republic
            • Vème Republic was stronger as it didn't rely on this dependence
          • Used it to reinforce his reforms as an act of national strength
      • European Policy
        • DG was against a federal Europe in which France lost its autonomy
          • Blocked efforts to increase the EEC's political powers
          • Wanted Europe to listen and follow French interests
            • Saw Franco-German relationship as a very important strategy for Europe
              • Worked towards a strong Franco-German alliance
                • DG was the first foreign politician to speak of 'the great German people' after WW2
                • DG ended centuries of bad blood with Germany
                  • Signed the Franco-German treaty at Reims Cathedral on 22nd January 1963
                    • Site of several Franco-German conflicts
                    • One of the greatest achievements for DG and is one of the reasons why France and Germany are so attached to the EU
                      • Especially significant considering that DG was the person acclaimed with helping France gain its freedom
                  • France and Germany had been at war with each other for over 100 years
              • Germany was the economic power whereas France was the political power
              • Thought that this would lead to European cohesion and economic prosperity
        • Worked towards a strong Franco-German alliance
          • DG was the first foreign politician to speak of 'the great German people' after WW2
          • DG ended centuries of bad blood with Germany
            • Signed the Franco-German treaty at Reims Cathedral on 22nd January 1963
              • Site of several Franco-German conflicts
              • One of the greatest achievements for DG and is one of the reasons why France and Germany are so attached to the EU
                • Especially significant considering that DG was the person acclaimed with helping France gain its freedom
            • France and Germany had been at war with each other for over 100 years
      • Third World policy
        • DG treid to extend the reach of French influence
          • Wanted to create a new role as a leader in the Third World
            • Alliances with Arab countries
              • Both economic and political interest
        • Supported the separation of Quebec
          • 'Vivre le Québec Libre!'
            • Puts him at odds with Canada and DG had to cut his state visit short after making this comment
    • Economic and Social change
      • Econcmic change
        • The new Constitution brought both economic and political stability
          • DG devalued the currency
            • The new Franc gave new dynamism to the French economy
              • Made exports more competititve
              • Reduced debt
            • What was formerly 100 francs now became 1 franc
          • Period of economic expansion in science and progress
            • Projects such as the concorde on 29th November 1962
            • Development of Nuclear power plants from 1967
              • Currently 75% of French electricity is produced by these, EDF & Hinkley Point- demonstrates DG's longevity
          • Growth in tertiary (service) industry as well as in oil, chemical and engineering secors
            • Rise in immigration from North Africa and the South of Europe
        • HOWEVER there is the perception that modernisation has led to a loss in the QoL
          • Gaullist society was perceived as bureaucratic, too centralised, inflexible and cold.
            • The youth had a disconntect with modernism due to the conservative nature of society
              • La Société bloquée
                • Michel Crozier 1970
                  • Led to 'La Crise de mai 1968'
                    • The demographic explosion after the war led the population to rise from 40.5 to 49.7million
                      • These baby boomers were 20 in 1968
                        • Looked at the UK and USA with the swinging sixties and the new liberal society it brought with it.
                          • Felt that France was anchored in its paternalistic tradition
                            • Women still regarded as 'belonging' to their husbands
                            • French universities were segregated by sex
                            • Women needed their husbands permission to open a bank account
                            • Women coulkd only own a business if they had widow status (why so many champagnes are 'veuf/veuve)
                          • Led to 'La Crise de mai 1968'
                            • The demographic explosion after the war led the population to rise from 40.5 to 49.7million
                              • These baby boomers were 20 in 1968
                                • Looked at the UK and USA with the swinging sixties and the new liberal society it brought with it.
                                  • Felt that France was anchored in its paternalistic tradition
                                    • Women still regarded as 'belonging' to their husbands
                                    • French universities were segregated by sex
                                    • Women needed their husbands permission to open a bank account
                                    • Women coulkd only own a business if they had widow status (why so many champagnes are 'veuf/veuve)
                                • Universities were underequipped to deal with this new higher influx of students
                                  • Youth felt as if they did not fit in with society
                              • Universities were oversubscribed and the system was inept
                                • Nanterre
                                  • No library, so students had to travel to the Sorbonne in the Centre of Paris to use theirs
                                  • No infrastructure- no metro going there
                                  • 18th March- Students at Nanterre were arrested
                                    • 22nd March- Students protest by occupying campus
                                      • 28th March- authorities close Naterre's campus
                                        • Start of May- Sorbonne campus was closed for fear of confrontations between Far-Left and Far-Right students
                                          • 10th-11th May- After riots, there were a series of clashes between the police and students in Paris
                                            • 13th May- A domino effect ensues and the students were joined by trade unions in order to increase wages and living conditions
                                              • Wanted a fair share of the economic growth- although France was economically prosperous, wages and working conditions did not follow which led to strikes
                                              • Journalists then joined the movement to protest against government control and censureship
                                                • The whole country was at a standstill
                                                  • People were nervous as they didn't know how DG would react- thought he might send in the army.
                                                • Clash between PM (GP) and DG- conmpromise vs. hardlined
                                                  • GP signes the "accodres de grenelle" on 27th May which offered new guarantees to employees but protests still increased
                                                    • DG disappeared for 24 hours- no body knew what was going on
                                                      • In a radio broadcast, DG dissolves the Assemblée Nationale
                                                        • 23rd and 30th June elections restored order and the Gaullists won a huge majority (358/485 seats)
                                                          • Ended the May 68 Crisis
                                                          • Could be due to fear and worry, previously the Gaullist party was declining in support but this election brought back a huge resurgence in votes
                                                            • HOWEVER May '68 massively dented public confidence in DG due to his handling of the situation
                                                              • Remained weak and people began to think he should resign
                                                                • 27th April 1969 53% of French people rejected a referendum on the reform of the senate and regionalisation
                                                                  • DG offered an ultimatum- if people voted YES he would stay, NO and he would resign
                                                                    • The End of DG
                                                                      • Retires from political life and dies of a heart attack on 9th November 1970
                                                                      • GP elected as president on 15th June 1969
                            • Political Reasons
                              • There was a disenchantment with the communist party (who were traditionally the alternative party)
                                • 1954 invasion of Hungary by the USSR
                                  • Anti-Stalinist movement
                              • There was a growing influence of liberal thinkers- hippy generation
                                • "Il est interdit d'interdire"
                                • "Exigez l'impossible!"
                                • Le pouvoir à l'imagintation!
                        • Universities were underequipped to deal with this new higher influx of students
                          • Youth felt as if they did not fit in with society
                      • Universities were oversubscribed and the system was inept
                        • Nanterre
                          • No library, so students had to travel to the Sorbonne in the Centre of Paris to use theirs
                          • No infrastructure- no metro going there
                          • 18th March- Students at Nanterre were arrested
                            • 22nd March- Students protest by occupying campus
                              • 28th March- authorities close Naterre's campus
                                • Start of May- Sorbonne campus was closed for fear of confrontations between Far-Left and Far-Right students
                                  • 10th-11th May- After riots, there were a series of clashes between the police and students in Paris
                                    • 13th May- A domino effect ensues and the students were joined by trade unions in order to increase wages and living conditions
                                      • Wanted a fair share of the economic growth- although France was economically prosperous, wages and working conditions did not follow which led to strikes
                                      • Journalists then joined the movement to protest against government control and censureship
                                        • The whole country was at a standstill
                                          • People were nervous as they didn't know how DG would react- thought he might send in the army.
                                        • Clash between PM (GP) and DG- conmpromise vs. hardlined
                                          • GP signes the "accodres de grenelle" on 27th May which offered new guarantees to employees but protests still increased
                                            • DG disappeared for 24 hours- no body knew what was going on
                                              • In a radio broadcast, DG dissolves the Assemblée Nationale
                                                • 23rd and 30th June elections restored order and the Gaullists won a huge majority (358/485 seats)
                                                  • Ended the May 68 Crisis
                                                  • Could be due to fear and worry, previously the Gaullist party was declining in support but this election brought back a huge resurgence in votes
                                                    • HOWEVER May '68 massively dented public confidence in DG due to his handling of the situation
                                                      • Remained weak and people began to think he should resign
                                                        • 27th April 1969 53% of French people rejected a referendum on the reform of the senate and regionalisation
                                                          • DG offered an ultimatum- if people voted YES he would stay, NO and he would resign
                                                            • The End of DG
                                                              • Retires from political life and dies of a heart attack on 9th November 1970
                                                              • GP elected as president on 15th June 1969
                    • Political Reasons
                      • There was a disenchantment with the communist party (who were traditionally the alternative party)
                        • 1954 invasion of Hungary by the USSR
                          • Anti-Stalinist movement
                      • There was a growing influence of liberal thinkers- hippy generation
                        • "Il est interdit d'interdire"
                        • "Exigez l'impossible!"
                        • Le pouvoir à l'imagintation!
      • La Société bloquée
        • Michel Crozier 1970

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