Les années Pompidou et Giscard d'Estaing (1969-1981)

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  • Les années Pompidou et Giscard d'Estaing (1969-1981)
    • After May 1968, DG had a falling out with GP
      • In July 1968, after the dissolution of l'Assemblée Nationale, GP was replaced as PM by Maurice Couve de Murville
    • Election of Georges Pompidou
      • Remembered as 'les années assez heureuses'
        • Last 'années heureuses' in France before the economic crisis in the 80s
      • GP, former PM to DG, was elected President with 58.21% of the votes
        • Running against the centrist President of the Senat Alain Poher, who was interim president after DG resigned
        • GP wanted to respect the institutions of Vème republic
          • Didn't represent a radical change in politics, instead followed in DG's footsteps.
          • Appointed the Gaullist Jaques Chaban-Delmas as PM
            • JC-D was quite liberal
              • Put in place important reforms for the Republic
                • Chaban-Delmas and "la nouvelle société"
                  • Wanted to rectify and resolve the issues posed by "la société bloquée"
                    • Wanted to transform France into a more cohesive, harmonious society AS WELL AS encouraging economic development
                      • Wanted to create a society that was more dynamic, competitive and capable of responding to change
                        • From 1969 there was more democracy and less censorship of TV and media
                        • More workers rights and the development of professional training
                        • Creation of SMIC (Saliare minimum) in 1970
                          • Created to improve living conditions and buying powers of the lower classes
                        • GP was a man of industry, and several initiatives to reinforce the economy and modernise industry in France
                          • TGV
                          • Airbus
                            • Was created with the aim of being a main competitor to the US
                              • Can be said to have been successful as today Airbus is one of the main rivials of US company Boeing
    • Chaban-Delmas and "la nouvelle société"
      • Wanted to rectify and resolve the issues posed by "la société bloquée"
        • Wanted to transform France into a more cohesive, harmonious society AS WELL AS encouraging economic development
          • Wanted to create a society that was more dynamic, competitive and capable of responding to change
            • From 1969 there was more democracy and less censorship of TV and media
            • More workers rights and the development of professional training
            • Creation of SMIC (Saliare minimum) in 1970
              • Created to improve living conditions and buying powers of the lower classes
            • GP was a man of industry, and several initiatives to reinforce the economy and modernise industry in France
              • TGV
              • Airbus
                • Was created with the aim of being a main competitor to the US
                  • Can be said to have been successful as today Airbus is one of the main rivials of US company Boeing
    • The Resurgence of the French left
      • In 1971, François Mitterand takes control of the new Partie Socialiste (PS), formerly the SFIO.
        • The PS wanted to form a coalition on the left with the Partie Communiste
          • The PS realised that with the new constitution, the president held the majority of the power and so they had to unite the left.
            • Wanted to be an effective rival and compete with the Gaullist powers
            • The left evolved from it's old grass roots, militant image to a more modern, media savvy image
              • The left became more interested in softening their image and seducing a broader, more moderate electorate
        • Led to a new bipolorisation between the left and right in French politics
          • On one side was the Right
            • The Gaullist UDR (Union des démocrates pour la République)
            • The centre right RI (Républicains Indépendants)
              • Other small moderate parties on the centre
                • The Gaullist UDR (Union des démocrates pour la République)
                • The Gaullist government was consolidated by these centre right parties
          • On the side of the opposition was the left
            • Partie Socialiste
            • The MRG (Mouvement des Radicaux des Gauche
            • The PCF (Partie Communiste Français)
    • Georges Pompidou's foreign policy
      • Followed DG's policy of independence
        • HOWEVER, GP was more moderate than DG
          • Less obsessed about France's leadership role within Europe, more interested in cooperation with other European countries
      • More interested and accepting of the UK's role in Europe, and beleieved that they did belong in the EEC
        • View was ratified by a referendum in France
          • Approved by 68% of French people
          • UK joined the EEC in 1973
    • Election of Valéry Discard d'Estaing
      • VGE vs FM- VGE marginally won with 50.8% of the votes
        • At 48 years ol, VGE wanted to incite change, youth and modernity after 16 years of Guallist presidency
      • GP's former finance minister
        • At 48 years old, VGE was the youngest French president until Macron
          • Wanted to represent change, youth and modernity after 16 years of Gaullist rule
          • Because he wasn't the leader of a strong party (RI), VGE had to work with the UDR in order to gain a majority
            • He named Jaques Chriac (member of UDR as PM in order to consolidate this support
              • The Chirac government implemented a huge number of important social legislations
                • The bills which were implemented under VGE's presidency were traditionally left-wing and so possibly some of his core electorate abandoned him in the next elections
              • VGE wanted to transform France
                • Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
                • Legalised abortion (IVG)
                  • Call for legalisation was led by Simone Veil
                    • Extremely controversial that a female health minister was carrying forward the motion
                    • Caused a lot of anti-Semitism and fighting in parliament
                      • SM was a survivor of the holocaust
                      • MPs compared her to a Nazi
                        • SM was a survivor of the holocaust
                • Allowed divorce through mutual agreement
                  • Before,getting a divorce was very difficult: you had to prove cheating in front of a court
                • Created the State Secretariat for the Status of Women
    • Political and Economic Crisis
      • 1974 was the end of the '30 glorieuses'
        • The Yom Kippur war (1973) and the rise in the price of oil caused a global recession
          • The rise in oil prices was as a result of a reaction by Arab nations to the Yom Kippur War
      • France was extremely affected by unemployemnt
        • 500,000 unemployed in 1973; 1 million by the end of 1975; 1.5 million by 1980
          • Lack of untiy on the right
            • Chirac resigns from his post as PM on 25th August 1976
              • Stated he didn't have the necessary means to carry out his job effectively
              • Huge blow to VGE as he loses his main Gaullist support
                • Makes life very difficult
                • New PM was the economist Raymond Barre
                  • Very intelligent but not an experienced politician, came across as a little abrupt
                  • On the left "l'union de la gauche" (PS+PCF) was becoming more popular
                    • FM affirmed his authority and became the official candidate for the PS in the 1981 presidential election
    • 1981 Presidential Election
      • VGE was a candidante to run for a second term
        • He was in a difficult position
          • Was right in the middle of Mitterrand and Chirac so had to endure attacks from both the left and right
            • He was involved in the diamond scandal
              • Accused of corruption as he received gifts of diamonds from an African dictator Bokassa. Blood diamonds.
                • VGE had a predominately upper class image (liked hunting etc.) and so was unpopular with the working class voters
        • Chirac sought to affirm his leadership on the right
          • Mitterrand proposed a 'different policy' to resolve unemployment and the economic cirsis
            • On 10th May 1981, FM was elected the President of the Republic with 51.76% of the vote
              • For the first time since 1958, France had a socialist president

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