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    • Western - individualistic cultures, concept of white lies, self promotion.
    • Eastern - sociocultural, one must be brave to admit wrong doing, shouldn't lie
    • Research method - lab experiment, independent measures, could be considered quasi experiment
      • IV's : chinese or canadian, aged 7,9,11, social /physical stories
        • DV: the rating given to the story character's deed, the rating given to what the character said
    • Aim - investigate cross cultural differences in children's understanding and moral valuations including lying and truth telling.
    • Sample - 120 chinese children from elementary schools in Hangzhou. 40 7, 9 and 11 year olds. 108 Canadian students from elementary school in Fredericton. 36 7 year olds, 40 9 year olds, 32 11 year olds.
    • Four types of stories: Social/truth telling, social/lie telling, antisocial/ truth telling, antisocial lie telling
    • Procedure - children randomly assigned to each condition. Chinese, 20 in social story other 20 in physical. Canadian 19 7, 20 9 and 17 11 randomly assigned to social story and others in physical.
      • rating with symbol was repeated every time a question was asked. randomisation table to avoid order effects.
    • Results - no sig diff between gender and order, every good deed had a positive score, every bad score had a negative score
      • Post experimental discussions - asked why they gave the ratings they did. chinese bellieved to be silent and not brag about doing a good deed
    • Social/Truth-telling, both cultures rated behaviours similarly so no sig diff, canadian most pos rating. Social/Lie telling, canadian - as age increased their ratings became less negative, anti social/truth telling, rated it similarly, both cultures rated truth telling positively.
      • Antisocial/lie telling - rated antisocial behaviour differently,  both rated lie telling negatively, negative ratings  increased with age.
    • conclusions - both show similar moral evaluations of lie telling and truth telling, close relationship between socio-cultural practises and moral judgemental exists.

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