Cognition - Lecture 7 (Human Cognition pt.2)

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  • Lecture 7 - Human Cognition pt. 2
    • Behavioural measure - lab tasks for probing single word identification. Phenomena observed:
      • -Word superiority effect: accuracy of letter identification is greater in the context of a word than a matched non-word.
      • -Frequency effects: reaction time (RT) for lexical decision, categorisation, and naming are shorter for words that are more frequent in the language.
      • -Sentence context effects: RTs for lexical decision and naming are shorter when a word is presented in a sentence context of which it's a plausible continuation.
    • Eye fixation - provides a relatively natural, online method for investigating critical psycho-linguistic methods
      • Fixation durations in natural reading are influenced by frequency, lab tasks requiring single word recognition provide a reasonable approximation to 'natural' reading
    • A serial search model (e.g. Foster, 1976)
      • Encode spelling pattern
      • Compare one at a time to each word-form stored in the mental dictionary
      • If match found, retrieve meaning and/or pronunciation; if not, continue search
      • For efficiency, the search is in order of frequency in the language; hence a match will be found faster for a higher-frequency word.
    • Modified serial model (Foster and Murray propose):
      • Mental lexicon of word-forms is divided into "bins"
      • A quick & dirty initial process categorises spelling pattern to select appropriate bin
      • Serial search (frequently ordered) within that bin


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