Later Foreign Policy - Elizabeth I - 1885-1603

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Later Foreign Policy 1585-1603
    • Historiography
      • MacCaffrey: The failure of the 1589 Portugese expedition shows 'the tissue of constraints' that prevented the English from waging war effectively
        • PORTUGAL EXPEDITION 1589
          • Hawkins set out to destroy what remained of the Armada and secure the independence of Portugal  after it was annexed by Spain in 1580
            • The expedition was poorly organised and relied on troops  from the Netherlands, therefore weakening the force fighting there
              • In total, the expedition cost £100,000 and succeeded in doing very little due to its lack of strategy
                • FAILURE       it wasted money that England needed for war
      • MacCaffrey: The 1596 Cadiz expedition showed 'a muddle of contradictory purposes'
        • EXPEDITION OF CADIZ 1596
          • Raleigh set out to capture Cadiz, which he did successfully and in the process disrupted Spanish merchant vessels, knocking the Spanish economy further towards bankruptcy
            • However,  the success at Cadiz could not be built upon as there was no way to move up to Lisbon
              • The English attack provoked Philip to retaliate by sending another fleet to England
                • SUCCESS  the english captured Cadiz successfully and hastened the downfall of the Spanish economy FAILURE there was no way to develop the victory at Cadiz, so the attack was more antagonistic than profitable
      • Adams: 'War broke out because Philip and Elizabeth lost their nerve'
        • The armada was the result of long term deterioration of Anglo-Spanish relations
          • The original captain of the armada, Santa Cruz, died, leaving the inexperienced Medina Sidonia to head the fleet
            • The Spanish moored their boats off the Gravelines near Calais, allowing the English to exploit their position and sail fire ships towards the Spanish on the 7th August
              • The fire ships disrupted the fleet, causing many ships to haul anchor, making them vulnerable to the 'protestant wind' that forced them into the North Sea in order to avoid running aground
                • 3 ships were sunk by the smaller, manoeuvrable English boats
                  • The majority of the Spanish fleet were funnelled into the North Sea by the winds, passing the Netherlands and any chance of picking up Parma's troops
                    • They had to sail round Scotland and Ireland to get back, a journey that killed many Spaniards and sank many boats
                      • SUCCESS  on a security level FAILURE didn't end war with Spain
    • ARMADA 1588
      • The armada was the result of long term deterioration of Anglo-Spanish relations
        • The original captain of the armada, Santa Cruz, died, leaving the inexperienced Medina Sidonia to head the fleet
          • The Spanish moored their boats off the Gravelines near Calais, allowing the English to exploit their position and sail fire ships towards the Spanish on the 7th August
            • The fire ships disrupted the fleet, causing many ships to haul anchor, making them vulnerable to the 'protestant wind' that forced them into the North Sea in order to avoid running aground
              • 3 ships were sunk by the smaller, manoeuvrable English boats
                • The majority of the Spanish fleet were funnelled into the North Sea by the winds, passing the Netherlands and any chance of picking up Parma's troops
                  • They had to sail round Scotland and Ireland to get back, a journey that killed many Spaniards and sank many boats
                    • SUCCESS  on a security level FAILURE didn't end war with Spain
    • PORTUGAL EXPEDITION 1589
      • Hawkins set out to destroy what remained of the Armada and secure the independence of Portugal  after it was annexed by Spain in 1580
        • The expedition was poorly organised and relied on troops  from the Netherlands, therefore weakening the force fighting there
          • In total, the expedition cost £100,000 and succeeded in doing very little due to its lack of strategy
            • FAILURE       it wasted money that England needed for war
    • 1589-1593 NEW WORLD PIRACY
      • Between these years, Elizabeth supported piracy in the caribbean as a source of income
        • Expeditions by Raleigh were always profitable, particularly his seizure of the 'Madre de Dios', which brought in £80,000
          • However, expeditions led by Hawkins often cost more than they earned
            • SUCCESS sometimes expeditions could result in seizure of valuable treasures     FAILURE more often than not the expeditions cost a great deal but earned very little, shown by Hawkins. Piracy was not a reliable source of crown income
    • EXPEDITION OF CADIZ 1596
      • Raleigh set out to capture Cadiz, which he did successfully and in the process disrupted Spanish merchant vessels, knocking the Spanish economy further towards bankruptcy
        • However,  the success at Cadiz could not be built upon as there was no way to move up to Lisbon
          • The English attack provoked Philip to retaliate by sending another fleet to England
            • SUCCESS  the english captured Cadiz successfully and hastened the downfall of the Spanish economy FAILURE there was no way to develop the victory at Cadiz, so the attack was more antagonistic than profitable
    • WAR WITH NETHERLANDS
      • Between 1589-1594 English victories in the Netherlands became more and more common
        • Parma died in 1592, leaving the Spanish troops in the Netherlands without their long term leader
          • By 1594, All Spanish troops had been expelled from the Northern provinces of the Netherlands and the Dutch had been repaid £800,000
            • SUCCESS The Spanish were losing their grip on the Netherlands, they had lost their leader and had been forced out of the provinces that once made up the protestant Union of Utrecht

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all British monarchy - Tudors and Stuarts resources »