Tudor England and Relations with Scotland

Anglo-Scottish relations 1485-1603

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Henry VII

Overall, relations with Scotland rocky but not too bad. His attack on France, however, 1489-92, worsened relations as the Auld Alliance linked France and Scotland.He attempted to smooth this over by marrying his sister to the Scottish King James IV, however the peace was uneasy until the end of his reign. This also caused dynastic problems under the reign of later Tudors.

  • 1496 Brief Scots foray into England
  • 1497 James IV led raid on Northern England
    Truce of Ayton - temporary Anglo-Scottish truce
  • 1502 Anglo-Scottish alliance treaty
  • 1503 Alliance sealed with the marriage of James IV to Margaret Tudor
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Henry VIII

Relations with Scotland were continually bad, however this was mainly as a result of the Auld Alliance and Henry's determination to become a glorious warrior king in France. However, in later years Henry became more interested in exerting his dominance over Scotland.

  • 1513 Battle of Flodden Field
  • 1515 Anglo-French Treaty - also ensured Scottish peace!
  • 1522 England declared war on France and Scotland (little interation between English and Scottish troops however - Henry was concentrated in France)
  • 1542 Battle of Solway Moss - James V died days later
  • 1543 Treaty of Greenwich - Mary Queen of Scots betrothed to Prince Edward
  • 1544 Seymour raided lowlands and Edinburgh
  • 1545 10,000 French troops arrived in Scotland
  • 1546 Peace of Ardres - England not to attack Scotland unless they first invaded
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Edward VI and Scottish relations

As Edward was too young to rule of his own accord, the summary of his relations with Scotland must be instead those of Somerset and Northumberland. Somerset had very poor relations with Scotland, and was determined to secure the marriage of Mary and Edward by force (the 'Rough Wooing'). On the other hand, Northumberland's policy was frugal and peaceful.

  • 1547 Battle of Pinkie Cleugh - great victory for English
  • 1548 Policy of garrisoning introduced in Scotland
  • Mary Queen of Scots taken to France to prepare for her wedding to the 
  • 1550 Treaty of Boulogne - Anglo-Franco-Scottish peace, English troops to leave Scotland and no possibility of marriage between Edward and Mary, Queen of Scots accepted by both sides. (Also Boulogne sold back to French)
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Mary I

In the reign of Mary relations with Scotland were peaceful, despite the French war towards the end of her reign.

  • 1558 Mary, Queen of Scots married the French Dauphin - cemented Franco-Scottish alliance, possibly threatening England
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Elizabeth I

Relations with Scotland varied under Elizabeth's reign. Although she was keen for peace, she supported the Scottish Protestants and eventually imprisoned and executed Mary, Queen of Scots. Towards the end of the reign, however, relations were patched up, mainly as James VI, as heir presumptive, obviously desired to keep on good terms with Elizabeth.

  • 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis - France promised to pacify the Scottish border
  • Revolt in Scotland by Protestant Lords of the Congregation
  • 1560 Treaty of Berwick - Elizabeth pledged to help Protestant Lords of the Congregation. An army was sent north, but disastrously failed to capture French-held Leith
  • Treaty of Edinburgh - victory for Lords of the Congregation, they ruled as a council, all foreign troops to leave Scotland, MQS to recognise Elizabeth as Queen of England
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Elizabeth I (cont)

  • 1561 MQS returned to Scotland after the death of her husband to rule with the Lords of the Congregation
  • 1567 MQS forced to abdicate
  • 1568 MQS fled to England
  • 1569 MQS imprisoned by Elizabeth
  • 1586 Treaty of Berwick - Elizabeth recognised James VI as King of Scotland and paid him £4,000 p.a.
  • 1587 Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
  • 1603 James succeeds to English throne as James I after Elizabeth's death
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