Language and Power Theorists/Theories

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  • Language and Power Theorists
    • Fairclough (2001)
      • Power behind discourse
        • Context (who, what where, when why etc.)
      • Power in discourse
        • Features and methods used to show power e.g. material verbs
      • Modal verbs (auxiliary verbs)
        • Deontic Modality
          • Displays necessity and obligation. power in advertising. E.g. you must buy this product.
        • Epistemic Modality
          • suggests possibilities e.g. you could do that
      • Ideology
        • Meaning/attitudes and world views displayed in language
      • Advertising works by creating a relationship between the text producer and receiver by constructing a product image the helps position the receiver as a potential consumer.
    • Wareing (1999)
      • Political power
        • power in law
      • Personal power
        • power from a job/occupation etc.
      • Social group power
        • friends and family/social groups as well as class gender and age.
      • Instrumental power
        • enforces authority and is imposed by the law, state, conventions and organisations
      • Influential power
        • persuasive and inclines us to act in a certain way.
    • Dyer (1982)
      • "An adverts main goal is to persuade. Adverts are taking over our lives and display an unattainable reality."
        • e.g. the Lynx adverts
      • Advertising works as a projected world that the reader/consumer is invited top become a part of.
    • Coulthard and Sinclair (1975, 1992)
      • IRF Model
        • I: Initiation - more powerful participant asks initial question
          • R: Response - Less powerful participant responds to initiation.
            • F: Feedback - More powerful participant responds and gives feedback to steer the conversation.
        • Commonly used by teachers in a classroom environment
    • Erving Goffman and expanded by Brown and Levinson
      • FACE - A person's self esteem or emotional needs
      • Face-threatening act (FTA): a communicative act that threatens someone's positive or negative face needs.
  • Synthetic personalisation - when advertising uses personalised language to construct a relationship between text producer/receiver.
    • Advertising works by creating a relationship between the text producer and receiver by constructing a product image the helps position the receiver as a potential consumer.
  • e.g. second person pronoun "you"
    • Synthetic personalisation - when advertising uses personalised language to construct a relationship between text producer/receiver.
    • POSITIVE Face - the need to feel wanted, like or appreciated
      • FACE - A person's self esteem or emotional needs
    • NEGATIVE Face - the need to have freedom of thought and action and not feel imposed on.

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