Key concepts & identity

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  • Key concepts
    • Nationality
      • National identity is formed through socialisation
        • Sense of belonging, eg being British is speaking English, holding citizenship, respecting laws, values & beliefs.
          • Creates a common ethnicity providing a common identity eg through known or experiences folk-cultures
            • Culture of hybridity
        • Primary & secondary socialisation family, media, school etc
          • Postmodern view - globalisation creates fluid identities
            • Culture of hybridity
      • Nationality is having citizenship rights to vote, passport, residence
    • Gender
      • Gender stereotypes
        • Hegemonic characteristics
          • Oakley's 4 processes of primary socialisation: 1. manipulation 2. canalisation 3. verbal appellations 4. exposure to different activities
            • Reinforced via secondary socialisation - hidden curriculum
              • Secondary Socialisation
                • Peer group socialisation
                • Media stereotypes
        • Postmodern view
          • Fluid identities
            • eg. Changing male identities
    • Sexuality
      • Sexual stereotypes
        • Hegemonic characteristics
          • Sexuality defined by hegemonic characteristics forming master statuses eg Women - sex objects beautified for male gaze
            • Stigmatised or spoiled sexual identities are those activities outside normal sex
            • Stereotypes formed through socialisation such as media images of 'normal' sex or parental reinforcement of 'normal' sex through Oakley's 4 processes of socialisation
          • Postmodern challenges to meta-narratives
            • Homosexuality & bisexuality
              • More fluid sexual identities emerging by challenges to 'meta-narratives' from secondary socialisations such as TV soaps as well as the law
            • Meta-narratives of 'normal' sexuality still remain through homophobia.
              • Homophobia is evident in primary & secondary socialisation.
    • Disability
      • Disability as a social construction
        • Disability as a product of socialisation - mass media
          • Hegemonic characteristics, particularly a master status
            • Stigmatised identity
          • Stereotyping plays a large role to the extent it creates an identity of exclusion and the inability to manage their identity.
            • Stigmatised identity
        • Postmodern argument challenges meta-narrative
          • London Olympics reconstructed identity or disabled to 'abled'
            • Identity of disabled clearly fluid & able to succeed in impression management
              • Disability as a product of socialisation - mass media
                • Hegemonic characteristics, particularly a master status
                  • Stereotyping plays a large role to the extent it creates an identity of exclusion and the inability to manage their identity.
          • Impairment only becomes a disability when you're restricted from undertaking everyday activities.

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