Key Battles and Turning Points in the ECW

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  • Fairfax moved towards York from the South and then merged with Manchesters eastern Association Army
    • led to the Battle of Marston Moor
    • first took Newcastle
      • coming of the Scots changed the military situation in Northern England
        • 2) The Battle of Marston Moor and the loss of York 1644
          • Key Battles and Turning points in the ECW
            • 3) 2nd Battle of Newbury
              • 1644 - Midlands were indecisive
              • growing crisis of commanders
              • brought crisis of p'ment army to a head
              • led to the NEW MODEL ARMY 1645
                • victories meant soldiers were God's instrument on earth
                • reinforced by prayer meetings and bible study
                • soldiers saw war as God's work
                • against Catholicism
                • Fairfax. Good militarian and had experience
                  • Essex was gone, he was rubbish
                • pushed into one united force
                • groups such as the levellers, fifth monarchists and congregationalists
                • all associations gone
            • 1) Solemn League and Covenant 1643
              • stretched Charles' resources thinly and local supporters like Montrose had to remain in Scotland to fight the Covenanters
                • IMPORTANT BECAUSE, more soldiers on p'ment side, united Scots a p'ment due to common enemy and religion
                  • adapted CofE to be ruled according to "God's holy words"
              • Scots support helped defeat the King in the North
              • provided military might 21,000 men
            • 4) Self Denying Ordinance 1646
              • a lord or MPs can no longer lead an army
              • gets rid of people who hadn't wanted to defeat Charles
            • 5) Battle of Naseby (1645)
              • p'ment lost 200 men
              • Royalists lost, 1000 dead and 4500 captured
              • Royalists tried to destroy the baggage train
              • p'ment joined main armies, a single national force
              • new rules from Fairfax, better pay, equipment and tactics
              • King attacked p'ment force of nearly 2x the size
          • victory for Parliament and destroyed Royalist power
  • against Catholicism
  • 1) Solemn League and Covenant 1643
    • stretched Charles' resources thinly and local supporters like Montrose had to remain in Scotland to fight the Covenanters
      • IMPORTANT BECAUSE, more soldiers on p'ment side, united Scots a p'ment due to common enemy and religion
        • adapted CofE to be ruled according to "God's holy words"
    • Scots support helped defeat the King in the North
    • provided military might 21,000 men
  • Pym and leading Covenanters
    • Based on meritocracy - promoted on how good of a job you do
      • "talent counted more than breeding"
      • 4) Self Denying Ordinance 1646
        • a lord or MPs can no longer lead an army
        • gets rid of people who hadn't wanted to defeat Charles

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