AQA GCSE Biology Unit 1 1.1 Keeping healthy part 2- Defense against disease

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  • Keeping Healthy- Defense against disease
    • PATHOGENS- Microorganisms that cause infectious disease e.g bacteria and viruses
      • They prevent our cells from working properly
      • May make us ill by producing poisons called toxins
      • Pass from person to person through...
        • The air (coughs and sneezes)
        • Contaminated food and drink
        • An infected person touching someone else
      • Disease- a condition that prevents the body from working normally
        • Diseases that are caused by viruses (small bacteria that cannot be treated by antibiotics as they live and reproduce inside the body's cells)
          • Flu- High temperatures
          • Measles- similar to chicken pox
          • Polio- effects muscles so they cant contract
          • Aids- transferred through sex, siliva and blood
    • Keeping things sterile
      • Antiseptics- Chemicals that are used to clean wonds or get rid of sores e.g nappy rash
      • Disinfectants- chemicals used to clean surfaces
        • Required when investigating disinfectants and antibiotics
          • Petri dishes and culture media are sterilized- to kill unwanted  microorganisms
            • Heat an inoculating loop. Dip in bacteria. Spread on agar. Sellotape dish shut.
              • Incubate at 20*C-25*C
                • Prevents the growth of harmful pathogens
                • Industries use higher temperatures for more rapid growth
      • Sterile environment
        • Required when investigating disinfectants and antibiotics
          • Petri dishes and culture media are sterilized- to kill unwanted  microorganisms
            • Heat an inoculating loop. Dip in bacteria. Spread on agar. Sellotape dish shut.
              • Incubate at 20*C-25*C
                • Prevents the growth of harmful pathogens
                • Industries use higher temperatures for more rapid growth
    • First defense
      • Skin- prevents pathogens from entering the body
      • Saliva
      • Tears
      • gastric juice
        • Kill pathogens
          • Sweat
          • Saliva
          • Tears
      • Sweat
    • Immune system
      • Phagocytes
        • 'engulf' bacteria that enter the body. They release enzymes that digest and destroy them
      • Immunity
        • Antibodies that remain in the body gives protection against that particular pathogen
          • When attacked by the same pathogen in the future, the specific white blood cells recognise the pathogen and produce the right antibodies quicker before they affect the body
        • Treating diseases
          • Vaccines
            • Injecting or swallowing a small amount of dead or weak pathogen
            • Doesnt make you ill but causes whiteblood cells to produce antibodies specific to the pathogen
              • Immunity
                • Antibodies that remain in the body gives protection against that particular pathogen
                  • When attacked by the same pathogen in the future, the specific white blood cells recognise the pathogen and produce the right antibodies quicker before they affect the body
                • Treating diseases
                  • Vaccines
                    • Injecting or swallowing a small amount of dead or weak pathogen
                    • Doesnt make you ill but causes whiteblood cells to produce antibodies specific to the pathogen
                      • Reduce risk of epidemics or pandemics
                      • e.g MMR, treats Measles, Mumps and rubella
                    • Antibiotics e.g penicillin
                      • cure diseases caused by bacteria
                      • when used, non-resistant bacteria are killed but a small number of resistant bacteria remains and reproduce. Giving diseases resistant to antibiotics (SUPER BUGS) e.g MRSA
                        • Require more antibiotics
                      • Aren't used for non-serious infections
              • Reduce risk of epidemics or pandemics
              • e.g MMR, treats Measles, Mumps and rubella
            • Antibiotics e.g penicillin
              • cure diseases caused by bacteria
              • when used, non-resistant bacteria are killed but a small number of resistant bacteria remains and reproduce. Giving diseases resistant to antibiotics (SUPER BUGS) e.g MRSA
                • Require more antibiotics
              • Aren't used for non-serious infections
        • produce antitoxins conteract toxins
    • Some medicines, relieve symptoms but not the pathogens

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