Ionisation mind map

Ionisation energy 

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  • Ionisation energy
    • Ionisation energy is the energy required to remove a mole of electrons from a mole of atoms in the gaseous state and is measured in KJ mol-1
    • Removing electrons one by one
      • The 2nd ionisation energy will require more energy as it is a 1+ ion
      • The first energy is the smallest energy requires and is its 1st ionisation energy
      • The 3rd  IE will require even more energy as of it being a 2+ ion
      • Na (g) -> Na+ (g) + e-
        • Na+ (g) ->  Na2+ (g) + e-
          • Na2+ (g) -> Na3+ (g) + e-
    • sodium has 3 shells of electrons
      • 1 in its outer shell
        • Easy to remove an electron as it is as far away from the nucleus as possible
      • 8 in its second shell
        • More energy is required to remove an electron as it is closer to the nucleus
      • 2 in its first shell
        • LOTS! of energy required to remove an electron as it is so close to the positive nucleus
    • Ionisation energy across a period
      • Ionisation energies generally increase across a period as of the nuclear charge increasing which makes it harder to remove an electon
      • First ionisation energies in period 3 in KJ mol -1
        • Na (496)
        • Mg (738)
        • Al (578)
          • The reason for the drop in IE from mg to Al is because it goes from mg (1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2) to Al (1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p1) this shows that Al's outer electron is in a slightly higher energy level and is easier to remove.
        • Si (789)
        • P (1012)
        • S (1000)
          • There is a drop here because there outer electrons lie in 3p. P's being 3p3 and S's being 3P4. As electron prefer not to travel in pairs and 3P energy level can carry 6 electron this would mean the S's outer energy level has 2 electron put together which repel one another and make it easier to be removed.
        • Cl (1251)
        • Ar (1521)


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