Atomic Structure

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  • Created by: AnushaK
  • Created on: 10-02-14 17:19
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  • Atomic Structure
    • Relative atomic mass - average mass of isotope compared with atom of c-12
    • Relative molecular mass = molar mass
    • Mass Spectrometer
      • 1. High temp, sample vaporised , (g) state
      • 2. E- beam ionises gas atoms
      • 3. Electric field - acclerate ions
      • 4. Velocity selector - all ions have  same velocity
      • 5. Magnetic Field - deflecting ions
      • 6. Detection
      • Mass Spectrum
        • Species are  X^+ - X^+
        • Ar = (1st isotope X %) + (2nd isotope X %)
      • Carbon Dating
        • Depends on C-14
        • Half life of C-14 used to approximate age
    • Thomson's Plum Pudding Model
      • Atoms no charge, +ve charge in atom and -ve charge e- cancel out.
      • Sphere of +ve charge with e- embedded inside it
    • Ionisation Energies
      • Complete removal of e-
      • endothermic process - work done  on e-, overcome attractive force between nucleus and e-
      • Amount of energy needed to remove and e-
      • 1st I.E = energy, 1 mole of e-, 1 mole of (g) atoms, form i mole of +ve ions.
    • Subshells
      • S, P, D & F
        • Shell1 - closest to nucleus, most energy to remove e-
        • s(lowest energy) < p < d
    • Electron Spin
      • Orbital
        • # E- not same spin #Only 2 e- per orbital with opposite spin
    • Electron Density maps
      • Electron cloud - e- spread around nucleus like a cloud
      • Shows shapes of areas of space of where e- is likely to be
      • Orbital - region where probability of finding an e- is greatest - e- can also be somewhere else altogether
      • Interpreting E.D maps e.g. 1s orbital most likely in sphere close to nucleus
      • Nodes - where e- wave has 0 amplitude + E- Density is zero = no e- there
      • P orbital - dumbell shaped + 90^ to each other in xyz axis, each p orbital has node at nucleus of atom.
    • Periodic Table
      • Modern Periodic law: properties of elements are function of their atomic no.s
      • S block - outer e- in s subshells and  so on for p,d and f blocks
      • Group 8 - electronic structures with full subshells, high i.e = stable electronic configuration
  • P orbital - dumbell shaped + 90^ to each other in xyz axis, each p orbital has node at nucleus of atom.

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