Atomic structure & the periodic table

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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 04-03-14 19:04
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  • Atomic structure & the periodic table
    • Ionisation energy
      • Defintion
        • "The amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a mole of gaseous atoms"
      • General trend
        • Decreases down the group
          • Increase in atomic radii leads to greater shielding.
            • Despite the addition of protons
        • Increase across a period
          • Addition of a proton causes a greater force of attraction between nucleus and outer electrons.
      • Endothermic processes
    • The Bohr model
      • It explains...
        • Why noble gases are generally unreactive
          • Complete outer shells gives stability.
        • The charge on ions.
          • Based on the number of electrons in the outer shell.
        • Reactivity down a group.
          • Reactivity increases
            • Shells provide shielding to the outer electrons, so there is less attraction to the nucleus.
      • It is limited because of the evidence for the quantum shell model
        • The blips in first ionisation energy across a period provide support for the quantum shell model
        • Successive ionisation energies support the quantum shell model, and tell us which group the element belongs
    • Sub-shells
      • Have different shapes: s, p or d
        • s = 2 electrons
        • d = 10 electrons
        • p = 6 electrons
    • Electronic configuration
      • Electrons fill shells singularly before beginning to pair up
        • Repulsion
      • Show the number of electrons and their arrangement.
        • This can be isoelectronic
      • Show the occupied energy of electrons in different orbitals.
    • Electron spin
      • Two electrons in the same orbital cannot have the same spin.
        • In an orbital, 1 electron must have an up spin, and the other a down spin.
    • Mass spectrometry
      • Basic principles
        • Deduce the isotopic composition of a sample of an element
        • deduce the relative atomic mass of an element
        • Measure the relative molecular mass of a compound
      • 5 steps
        • Deflection
          • Ions passed through a magnetic field. Deflected according to mass. Higher = less deflection
        • Vaporisation
        • Acceleration
          • Ions accelerated in an electric field
        • Detection
          • Ions focused on a detector plate
      • Uses
        • Space exploration - analyse samples of plasma
        • Drug testing - T:E ratio in urine
    • Electron density maps
      • Shows the shapes of the area of space where an electron is likely to be
    • Melting temperatures in periods 2 & 3
      • Dependent on on structure
        • Li, Mg, Al = high due to metallic structure
        • C & Si = high due to giant macromolecular structures
        • Non metals = low melting points as simple structures
  • p = 6 electrons

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