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Chapter 1.4 ­ Bonding

Ionic compounds ­ Formed when metals react with non-metals. They are held together by a strong
electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions. This is called an ionic bond. The
ions are held in a giant lattice structure.

The lattice structure of a particular ionic…

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Lattice Energy ­ Energy released when a lattice is formed. ........................................................................
E.g. Na(g) + Cl¯(g) H lat NaCl¯ (s)

The lattice energies of substances can be calculated by using a Born-Haber cycle...........................
E.g. Formation of sodium chloride: -

Na(g) + Cl(g) + e¯

Ionisation Hi1 (Na) +496 Electron affinity
He…

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-
+
No distortion as the difference in electronegativity is high.
E.g. One ion is much more electronegative than the other.


+ -
The difference in electronegativity between the ions is very
small so there is more polarisation, and they behave partially
like a covalent bond.
The theoretical values are…

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