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  • Insomnia
    • insomnia is a sleep disorder known as a 'dysomnia': characterized by problems with the length or quality of sleep
      • Insomnia involves problems with falling asleep, a reduction in sleep quality or issues with maintaining sleep
        • Insomnia symptoms are common in everyone so we need a clear diagnostic criterea
    • Morin et al stated that to have insomnia an individual must have one or more of the following
      • sleep onset latency of 30mins+; increased night time waking; sleep efficiancy of less than 85%; symptoms occuring 3 or more times a week
      • Morin catagorised insomnia as;
        • Transient-lasts less than a week; short term- occurs 1-4 weeks; chronic- occur 4 weeks+
    • Primary insomnia- chronic with no obvious cause
      • Idiopathic insomnia- a type of primary insomnia, it is life long occurring from childhood- there is some evidence it is caused genetically
    • Seccondary insomnia- related to psychological, physical or sleep related issues ( e.g. a result of sleep apnoea)
      • Morin et al- found that 40% of insomnia sufferers have a psychological disorder such as depression or anxiety
    • Medical conditions like asthma and treatments for asthma (steroids) can cause insomnia
      • also drugs, alcohol, and overuse of sleeping pills can cause insomnia
    • personality factors
      • influence the classification of insomnia hugely
        • Wickens- Einstein had 10 hours of sleep
          • but the least amount of sleep documented is 1 hour
      • Meddis- the average amount of sleep is 7.5 hours
        • However Van Dongen et al- found no difference between long and short sleepers- it is purely individual
      • clinical anxiety can cause insomnia- supported by the success of CBT in reducing anxiety and insomnia
      • Heath- high levels of disturbed sleep correlates with high levels of neuroticism
      • Vahtera et al- vulnerability to sleep disorders increases after traumatic life events
    • Chronotype and Genetics
      • Chronotype relates to the genetically predetermined 'morning type' (lark) personality or 'evening type' (night owl)
        • Kirkhoff and Van Dogen- a lark's circadian rythem is 2 hours ahead of night owl's
          • their pattern is controlled by endogenous pacemakers
        • chronotype is unchangeable but age can impact 'owl' or 'lark' personality
      • Van Dongen et al- there are some aspects of sleep that suggest heritibility, but there's lots of room for environmental factors
    • Gender
      • Morin et al- found that 60% of patients at a sleep clinic are female- correlating with the fact that women have higher neuroticism
        • Heath- high levels of disturbed sleep correlates with high levels of neuroticism
    • but
      • still no definitive answer as to why we sleep
        • studies western bias
  • reductionist- only two types of sleeper
    • 'nature' deterministic
      • too many individual differences


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