ICT - INFO 1 - INPUT

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  • Created by: luiop100
  • Created on: 16-05-16 09:53
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  • Input
    • Data types
      • Sounds
        • sound fed through a microphone creates an analogue signal
        • once it enters a computer it is converted into a digital signal
        • Can be entered through instruments like a MIDI
      • Images
      • Numbers
      • Moving images
        • Recorded onto a hard disk, DV tape or a DVD
          • Can be edited using specialist software
        • digital cameras and phones can record short bits of footage
        • Webcams
          • Used for video conferences
          • reduced file size due to not very high quality
          • Continuous stream of sent video images
        • Digital cameras
          • some have inbuilt storage or have a SD card
          • connected via cable or wirelessly
          • Pictures can be viewed on an inbuilt screen and deleted if required
          • mobiles have high quality inbuilt cameras
      • Text
    • Manual input
      • Keyboard
        • Typically QWERTY
        • Layout varies from country to country
        • Ergonomic keyboards increase comfort and reduce the chance of injury.
        • Mobile devices have smaller keyboards called keypads
      • Mouse
        • Connected via cable or wireless
        • Optical and mechanical varies
        • Mice have 2-3 buttons
        • Trackball
          • Ball on the surface
        • Laptops often have trackpads
      • Concept keyboard
        • Divided into areas fit for a purpose
        • Special software required
        • Covered in plastic film
        • Input for disabled individuals
        • Used at restaurants and check outs
      • Touch screen
        • Senses when an area is being touched
        • Uses embedded wires or infra-red light beams
        • Special software required
        • Use a finger or a stylus
        • Software that converts written words into characters can be used.
        • Used in public areas as they are quick and easy.
      • Graphics Tablet
        • AKA digitizing tablet
        • Mainly used for drawing
        • More natural than using a mouse
      • Speech recognition
        • User speaks into a microphone
        • Words are compared to a sound dictionary and converted into readable text
        • Not reliable due to voice and accent differences
        • Complicated by word meanings
        • To improve quality words must be said individually
    • Automatic input
      • Credit card reader
        • Magnetic strip or chip-and-PIN
        • Magnetic strip cards are swiped through a reader, but has limited data storage
        • Chip-and- PIN cards can hold a lot more data and do not scratch.
        • You cannot use a smart card without providing a pin.
      • Radio frequency ID
        • Uses radio waves to transmit a unique ID for objects.
        • Used for tracking positioning
        • Also called smart labels or radio bar codes
      • Scanners
        • Turns paper based images into digital ones
        • Flat-bed
          • Put the document on the flat glass plate.
        • Barcode scanner
          • Variation of flat-bed scanner
        • Hand-held scanner
          • Used when an item cannot be lifted onto a scanning plate
        • Sheet-feed scanner
          • The paper is moved not the scanner
        • Drum scanner
          • Creates high resolution images
        • The higher the resolution and quality the larger the file size
        • Resolution is measured in DPI
        • Used as the basis of more complex devices such as OMRs and OCRs
      • Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)
        • Used for multiple choice exams and lottery tickets
        • Uses a light beam to sense positioning
        • Each page has to be specially printed
        • Expensive to use
        • Inflexible as an input method
      • Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
        • Paper based documents are scanned and converted into computer characters
        • Commonly used to input forms filled out by employees
        • Simplifies data iinput
        • Quicker than manual input
        • Difficult to process non upper case writting
        • Used to scan in and mark exam papers
      • Bar-code reader
        • Black and white lines represent a number
        • Used in EPOS systems
        • Each barcode represents a primary key in a database
        • In-built error checking via a Check-Digit
        • Saves time and reduces typing errors
      • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
        • Almost exclusiuve to banks
        • Prevents acceptance of fake cheques
        • Not used that often due to decrease in cheque usage
    • Special purpose
      • Disability features
        • Pointer speed
        • Speed of clicks
        • Foot mouse
        • Trackball
      • Games controllers
        • Made to support fast response times
        • Senses motion and communicats via bluetooth
        • Relevant to the game
      • Choosing an Input device
        • Type of data?
        • Volume of data?
        • Cost?

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