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Human Computer Interface

What makes a good HCI....

  • Layout Appropriate To Task
  • Consistency of signposting and pop up information
  • Clear navigational structure
  • Built in / online helpfiles
  • Shortcuts for experts - Wizard for Novice

HCI For Disabled

  • Speech to text- amputees
  • Text to speech - blind/visually impaired
  • Colour Blindness- no red or green
  • Customisable to needs of the user
  • Screen magnifier
  • Braille keyboards
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A2 IT - Networks


Ring Networks
Quick - one direction
Least cable - cost down
Simple to set up
Break --> all down
Difficult to locate

Bus Networks
1 PC Unplugged does not mean network down
Easier to add computers/printers than ring
Possible Collisions- slower than ring
More expensive than ring network
Harder to set up than ring network

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A2 IT- Choice Of Network Factors

Choice of Network Factors

Size of Organisation
LAN ( Data Comms.) / WAN (Tele Comms.)

How the system will be used
No. of applications
File Sizes

Existing Systems to Integrate
Not from scratch, need to fit in
Expand e.g.) when new branch opens
Support peripherals

In terms of : reliability/user friendliness/capacity/speed of processing
Different parts of organisation- different performace required
E-commerce systems may require greater speeds/capacity/reliability



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A2 IT - Misuse/Code of Conduct


  • Introduction of viruses
  • Personal Use
  • Cyber Bullying
  • Misuse of data for own business - sell to others
  • Licensing

Code of Conduct

Definition - Rules created by management for employee use

  • Responsibilities
  • Rights of others
  • Legislation
  • Malicious Damage
  • Access Rights
  • Security
  • Consequences of breaking the code
  • Complying with licensing agreement
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A2 IT- E-Commerce


1) Trained/Skilled Staff

2) Catalogue of Stock
3)Payment System
4)Database of Orders
5)Order Tracking

Advantages to Business
Lower Start-up costs

Wider customer base
Can sell 24/7
Disadvantages to Business
System down = no sales

Increased Competition

Advantages to Customer
No travelling

Disabled Use
Price Comparison
Greater choice + Obscure Goods
Disadvantages to Customer
Fraudulent Sites

Returning Goods
Hard to assess the quality
Social Pleasure of Shopping lost

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A2 IT - Lack of Control of the Net

Lack of Control of the Net


Can't trust information



Thailand - No Copyright Law


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A2 IT - Risk Analysis

Risk Analysis

1) Identify Risk e.g.)Virus

2) Probability of Happening

3) Consequences of Happening

4) Current Equipment Level

5) Prepared to spend money to minimise the risk


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A2 IT - F.T.P - File Transfer Protocol

File Transfer Protocol

A standard set of rules that have been established to allow the exchange of (large) files over the internet.

No file size limit - Used for uploading websites to the internet.

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A2 IT - Maintenance



Adapting the system


Changes in law - VAT, Tax Rate changes



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A2 IT - Management Information Systems

Management Information Systems

Effective MIS
Accurate and Relevant Data

Info when required
Range otf Users
Output in appropriate form
Flexibility of system

Good MIS
Improve communication amongst management and employees

Allows individual project planning
Avoid information overload

Poor MIS
Complexity of the System

Inadequate initial analysis
Lack of management knowledge
Poor communication between professionals
Inappropriate hardware/software

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A2 IT - Management Information Systems

Management Information Systems

Systems that convert data from internal or external sources into information and resources designed to support the choices of managers.

Looking at pupil attendance figures to try and see if there are trends and to ensure less pupils truant

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A2 IT - Databases


Relational Database
A group of tables linked by primary and foreign keys

Data Normalisation
A staged process to simplify data structure so that attributes are not dependent on the entity

Distributed Database
A single database that is under the control of a database management system, where the strange devices are not all attached to a common processor

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A2 IT - Distributed Databases

Distributed Databases

Stored at two locations
Faster to query hard disk than telecom
Less network traffic
No dependence on central site
If data lost on central state, it can be reducplicated

Reliant on internet
Data inconsistency
Security threats
Heavy reliance on communications

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A2 IT - Internet Connection Types

Internet Connection Types

  • Broadband not avaliable everywhere
  • Broadband does not tie up phone line
  • Broadband allows more devices/computers to be connected to the internet at the same time
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A2 IT - Mobile Access to the Internet

Mobile Access to the Internet

Can work more productively
Can easily modify plans - flights, trains and hotels

Can be very expensive
Black spots/poor connectivity
Battery life
Work progress hampered by distractions

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A2 IT - Security Policies

Security Policies

 1) Audit Trails

2) Physical Security - Locks & Biometric Devices

3) User ID's - levels of access

4) Firewall

5) Code of Conduct

6) Training

7) Backup/disaster recovery

8) Disciplinary Procedures


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A2 IT- Distributed Computing

Distributed Computing

Definiton: A series of computers networked together working on the same problem with the same shared data processing.

(Search for extraterrestrial intelligence)

Cheaper than supercomputer
Anyone can contribute

Reliant on networking
Good will
Communication break down

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A2 IT - Management of Change

Management of Change

1) New Skills
2) Organisation Structure
3) Work patterns being altered
4) Change of internal procedures
5) Workforce Fears

Internal Procedures
Tradutional jobs done quickly, so they  may have to undertake new duties. Can cause stress if not involved in decisions or given proper training.

Workforce Fears

Loss of status
Fear of looking ridiculous
Changes in location

How to manage change
Explanation of advantages
Learn new skills
Involve them
Keep social groups together

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A2 IT - Databases


Advantages of relational database
No redundant data
Data consistency
Data integrity
Data independence - CSV
Access Rights

Redundancy - Storing an item of data more than once
Consistency - The relationship between the input data, processed data and output data
Integrity - Correctness of the data
Independence - The data and applications/programs used to access it are indpendent/seperate

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A2 IT - Data


Data Warehouse
Somewhere where a lot of data is held (archived)
Large archive used for decision making

Data Mining
Interrogating the data to find the patterns in the data  which is stored in the warehouse.

Going through data to find patterns
Positioning of products within a store

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A2 IT - Remote Management

Remote Management

1) Guide users through problems
2) Check to see no unauthorised software loaded on machines
3) Log off users
4) Check on components to see if any failing
5) Shut down status
6) Rebuild stations/ re setup stations/install/update software
7) Send instant messages
8) Control stations
9) Clear printer queues

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A2 IT - Changeover Strategies

Changeover Strategies

1) Direct - High risk but few resources (training)

2) Parallel - Reduces risk, allows comparison, duplication of work

3) Phased - problems, split into quarter

4) Pilot - More manageable - takes a lot longer


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A2 IT - Disaster Recovery

Disaster Recovery

1) Cost - Backup systems

2) Risk - Problems, Likelihood etc.

3) Data - Frequency of backup ?

4) Hardware/ Software comms. - Paint the picture

5) Personnel, Responsibilities and training - Make someone responsible for backups

6) Procedures - Describe backing up and test backups

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A2 IT - Moral,Social and Ethical Issues

Moral,Social and Ethical Issues

Moral Issues
Deliberately setting up websites with false information

Inappropriate websites - ****,violence and plaigarism
Email to give bad news - redundancy, fired
Spread rumours

Social Issues

Sending spam
Monitoring staff use
Wi-fi- no permission
Photo editing to distort reality

Social Issues

Gambling addiction
Addiction to computer games

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A2 IT - Network Performance

Network Performance



Cheap - cost

User Freindly

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A2 IT - Teleworking

Teleworking for Employee

Cost and time of commuting
Live anywhere
Work own hours
Stress reduction

Utility Bills
Social isolation
Lower pay
Boundary between home and work lost
No posh offices

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A2 IT - Teleworking

Teleworking for Employer

Smaller offices - less rent
Fewer cleaners = less wages
Sick staff
Staff on flexitime
Employ anyone - vast pool of talent

Monitoring staff
Harder to manage
Difficult to hold meetings
Pay for hardware
Data security
How hard are people working

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A2 IT - Teleworking

Teleworking Effects on Society

Reduction in greenhouse gases and congestion = less pollution

Rural communities/oppurtunities/Shares the wealth

Family relations and more time at home

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A2 IT - Feasability Report

Feasability Report

Definition - The summary of an inital investigation to look at the lielihood of being able to create a new system

User Requirements

Outline correct system
Identification of problems
Existing hardware and software
Benefits of new system
Is the new system worth it
Cost/benefit analysis
Conclusions - Yes/No

Investigation Methods

Inspection of records - paper based system

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A2 IT - Wireless Networks

Wireless Networks

Advantages of Wi-Fi
Work wherever you want within zone
Cheap -> no cable
Networks in old listed buildings
Global set of standards - all over the planet

Disadvantages of Wi Fi
Limited range
Transmission speed - currently slower than cable
Interference- from other wireless acces points
Power consumption

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A2 IT - Online Databases

Online Databases

Company --> Orders, stock and customers

Customers -->  Stock and previous orders

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A2 IT - P2P vs Client Server

P2P vs Client Server

Cost - Server is more expensive
Status- P2P all the same. Client server, server more important
Knowledge- P2P easier
Reliance on server
Security - network manager responsible
Backup - network manager accountable and easier as 1 machine
P2P small networks only (15 or less)

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A2 IT - Dissatisfaction with ICT systems over time

Dissatisfaction with ICT systems over time

Speed - no space on hard drive



Browser issues - lack of support

Change of business needs

Cost of user support

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A2 IT - Web Crawler

Web Crawler

A program that automatically browses web pages

e.g) Harvesting email addresses

Boolean Searching




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