Infancy Development

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  • Infancy (0-2)
    • Primitive Reflexes
      • ROOTING REFLEX-Baby turns head in direction of touch to find nipple of mother to get milk.
      • MORO/STARTLE REFLEX- When startled baby throws out arms and legs, then puts back with fingers curved.
      • GRASP REFLEX-Baby grasp object when placed in hand.
      • WALKING REFLEX- Baby held with feet touching ground,make forward movements if walking.
      • Gross Motor Skills- Large muscle groups used to accomplish.
      • Fine Motor Skills- Control of small muscles such as those found in fingers.
      • Development at different stages
        • 2 Months- Baby lies flat on floor, legs extended and raise head for a 2nd or two.
        • 3 Months- Lift head longer, support their body and turn over so by 9 months they can crawl.
        • 4-5 Months- Infants sit supported + control it's head when put in sitting position.
        • 6 Months- Babies can support weight if held upright + sit without support.
        • 13-15 Months Takes important first step, gradually increasing to carry toys and climb steps.
        • 18-2 Years- Walking progressed by 18 months that running and walking is possible
    • Intellectual
      • After birth infants can form relationships with partners + carers.
      • They show interest in human faces from a few weeks old.
      • Recognize mother by sound + appearance
      • Language Development
        • 6-9 Months-Infants respond to certain vocal instructions e.g 'wave bye-bye'
        • 1 Year- Some children manage 3 whole words, other communicate with facial expressions.
        • 2 Years- Able to put two words together e.g 'Sam milk'
        • Thinking/Cognitive -Piaget believed thinking was first limited to repeating actions.
        • Sensori/motor sills- Stage of development, infants can't understand that his/her mother exists once she has left the room.
    • Emotional
      • Infants able to recognize and react to basic feelings.Ability used to attract attention + build emotional attachments with parents/carer
      • By 1 year, recognize + react to emotional expressions e.g happiness and emotions shown by parents/carer
      • By 2nd year have become aware of self by fixed gender.
      • During first 18 months of life, infant forms loving bond that ties him/herself emotionally to parents or main carers.
      • If bonding fails a childs social + emotional development will be impaired.
    • Social
      • Infant follows moving person,with their eyes during 1st month
      • Starts to smile at human faces + recognize mother age 2 months.
      • 3 Months- Smile + make noise when adult of child goes by.
      • 5 Months- Distinguish between familiar + unfamiliar faces.
      • As infant gets older, bond between parents=less intense but still important.


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