Individual Differences In Stress

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  • Individual Differences In Stress
    • Personality Type
      • Type A
        • Competitive
          • Driven
          • Achievement-Motivated
          • Ambituous
          • Aware of Status
        • Time Urgent
          • Fast-talking
          • Impatient
          • Proactive
          • Multi-taskers
        • Hostile
          • Aggressive
          • Intolorant
          • Quick to anger
      • Type B
        • Laid Back
        • Relaxed
        • Tolorant
        • Reflective
      • Friedman & Rosenman (1959)
        • Observed that patients with CHD shared a common pattern of behaviour called Type A personality
          • Type A
            • Competitive
              • Driven
              • Achievement-Motivated
              • Ambituous
              • Aware of Status
            • Time Urgent
              • Fast-talking
              • Impatient
              • Proactive
              • Multi-taskers
            • Hostile
              • Aggressive
              • Intolorant
              • Quick to anger
        • Also identified the characteristics of Type B personality
          • Type B
            • Laid Back
            • Relaxed
            • Tolorant
            • Reflective
      • WCGS
        • Western Collaborative Groups Study
        • 3000 males were medically assessed as free of CHD at the start of the study
          • Personality types were assessed through a 25 question interview
            • Conducted to incite Type A related behaviour (e.g interviewer would be aggressive and interrupt)
          • After 8 years 257 men had developed CHD
            • 70% were assessed as Type A
              • Had higher levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline & higher blood pressure and chloesterol
        • Results suggest that those with a Type A personality are more vulnerable to stressors because impatience and hostility cause psychological stress response
          • Had higher levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline & higher blood pressure and chloesterol
      • Type C
        • Pathological Niceness
        • Repress Emotions
        • People pleasers; compliant, passive and self-sacrificing
        • Try to avoid conflict
          • Repress emotions, especially anger
        • Temoshok (1987)
          • Proposed that it is linked to cancer
        • Dattore et al (1980)
          • Studied 200 verterans of the Vietnam war
            • 75 had cancer
              • Proposed that it is linked to cancer
              • Cancer patients reported significantly greater emotional repression
              • Reported significantly fewer depression symptoms (repressed)
          • There is evidence between Type C and cancer proneness
        • Evaluation
          • Strengths
            • Edigo (2012)
              • Studied 150 Spanish men & women under 65 who had had a stroke and compared them with a matched control group
              • Found the stroke sufferers were more likely to be type A
                • Studied 150 Spanish men & women under 65 who had had a stroke and compared them with a matched control group
          • Limitations
            • Ragland & Brand (1988)
              • Followed up men from Friedman & Rosenman's original study who survived a heart attack
              • Found Type B survivors were more likely to die than Type A
                • Followed up men from Friedman & Rosenman's original study who survived a heart attack
                • Findings show that the relationship between Type A/B personalities and illness is a complex one not yet fully understood
            • Dembroski et al (1989)
              • Reanalysed data from Friedman and Rosenman's study
              • Found ratings of hostility significantly predicted later incidence of CHD
                • Reanalysed data from Friedman and Rosenman's study
                • Casts doubts on validity of Type A
            • Type C
              • Greer & Morris (1975)
                • Found a link between emotional suppression typical of Type C and breast cancer but only in women under 50
      • Hardiness
        • Protects against stress; existential courage
        • Kobasa (1979)
          • Proposed hardiness is a set of personality characteristics that protect us against stress
          • Measured life changes of 670 male American male middle and senior managers aged 40-49 years
            • Used the Schedule of Recent Experiences
              • Identified who experienced high stress over the previous 3 years
            • Also analysed absenteeism records and levels of illness
          • Those who were more resilient could tolerate high levels of stress without becoming ill or taking time off work
            • The findings were interpreted as confirming the role of hardiness because resilient managers scored highly on the 3 C's
        • Maddi (1986)
          • Argues hardiness gives us 'existential courage' - the will or determination to keep going despite setbacks life throws at us and uncertainties about future
          • Studied 400 managers and supervisors at the Bell Telephone company in the US over several years
            • Underwent one of the biggest reorganisations in American corporate history when the thousands of people lost their jobs - also extremely stressful for those who stayed
            • There were significant declines in performance and health in about two-thirds of participants
            • The managers who scored on measures of the 3 C's flourished - their health didn't deteriorate.
              • Those who scored highly on measures of the 3 C's felt happier and more fulfilled at work and were rejuvenated by the whole stressful experience
        • What are the 3 dimensions to hardiness?
          • Commitment
            • Hardy people are resilient and welcome changes as an opportunity or a challenge rather than a threat. They recognize life as unpredictable, but this is exciting and stimulating
          • Challenge
            • Hardy people deeply involved in relationships, activities and selves. They throw themselves whole-heartedly into life optimistic they will learn something valuable
          • Control
            • Hardy people have a strong belief that they are in charge of events. They actively strive to influence environments rather than being powerless and passive observers of life passing by

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