• Created by: khodnett
  • Created on: 23-02-16 10:29
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  • Stress
    • what is stress?
      • distress: harmful
      • eustress: beneficial
      • stress as a stimulus is a stressor eg exam
      • stress as a response is a strain eg fear
      • lazarus: (1993) transactional model- stress as a transaction between person and their external environment
        • external event > primary appraisal (perceived stress) > secondary appraisal (perceived ability to cope)
    • illness
      • stress is linked to illness. experiencing alot of stress likely increase risk coronary heart disease
      • chronic stress: continual stress over a long period
      • acute stress: short term
      • someone chronically stressed more susceptible to being ill when acute stress suddenly occurs
      • Cohen: (1991) study to determine how susceptible people are to common cold when stressed.
        • pps given nasal drops half containging cold virus and half placebo, each pp had completed a questionnaire measuring stress
          • 47% pps suffering stress given the virus developed a cold vs 27% with low stress given the virus developed a cold
            • high levels of stress likely to increase susceptibility to catching illness
    • biological stress
      • autonomic nervous system: 2 divisions
        • sympathetic nervous system: stress response by fight or flight
          • increased heartbeat, sweating, dilated pupils
        • parasympathetic nervous system: returns body normal
          • opposites to sympathetic
      • endocrine system: hormone release response to stress
        • set of glands in endocrine system secrete hormones into the blood stream affecting different organs
          • HPAC- hypothalamic pituitary adenocortical system = activates hypothalamus to secrete corticosteriods fighting inflammation and promote healing
          • corticosteriods counteracted by adrenal glands releasing cortisol to stop its release
        • pituitary gland most important
      • prolonged cardiovascular activity cause physical illness eg hypertension and strokes
    • Measuring stress
      • self report: subjective method= person gives answers on themselves eg questionnaires/ interviews. qual or quant
        • acute/chronic stress measured asking how the individual thinks, feels, behaves for self percieved stress levels
      • identifying stressful events comparing them to scale designed to determine levels of stress currently.
        • Holmes & Rahe: social readjustment scale (1967)= list of life events, rated on significance, the readjustment to circumstances causing the stress.
          • subjective, scientific measures disregarded. useful as can determine and predict illness
            • response bias, pps may seek to be socially desirable
            • pp and researcher variables skew results, also retrospective
    • Personal Variables
      • type A: competitive, time urgent, hostile, impatient, aggressive
        • type B: relaxed, patient, ability to express feelings
          • type C: passive, uncomplaining, compliant, unassertive
      • Friedman & Rosenman (1974): type A personalities more susceptible to stress
        • link of type A personalities to coronary heart disease, compared 2 groups of men matched physically differing by personality types with cardiovascular measures and interviews
          • type A personalities 5X more likely develop heart disease than type B
            • personality variables can effect health
      • locus of  control- effect of percieved control on illness
        • Rotter (1966): extent to which an individual thinks and feels they can control what happens to them
        • internal locus: can control what happens, can control own success. confident, arrogant, driven
          • external locus: little to no control on what happens,success is uncontrollable. shy modest worrier
            • at extremes external suffer high stress and depression whereas internal suffer stress and unrealistic ideas
          • Frankenhauser (1975): control and stress in sawmill factory workers with boring and repetitive work
            • taking levels of catecholamines & blood pressure, self reports on headaches and stomach disorders
              • workers have high catecholamines and blood pressure, frequent headaches and stomach disorders
                • due to external locus due to lack of input and dull repetitive work
      • Hardiness: ability to pick yourself up and fight adversity
        • kobasa (1979) : 3 traits of hardiness- commitment: significant things. challenges- viewing life as a challenge. Control- sense of grip on life decisions


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