Ice on the Land

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  • Ice on the Land
    • History
      • Last ice age was the  Pleistocene about 2.5 million years ago
      • They last about 100,000 years
      • 20,000 years ago 30% of the world was covered
    • Nowadays
      • Since there have been permanent ice sheets e.g. Greenland + Antarctica
      • 10% of the Earth is covered by ice
    • Evidence of temp. change
      • Chemical
        • chemical composition of ice and marine segments change a the temperature changes
        • samples build up quickly -> records show a pattern of increasing and decreasing
      • Geological
        • There are visible landforms showing where the ice was (Lake District, England)
      • Fossil
        • they show adaptations proving if it was hot or cold
    • Glacial Budget
      • Accumulation at the top. Ablation at the bottom
      • it is the difference between the total accumulation and total ablation in one year
      • More accumulation = advance
      • More ablation = retreat
      • Equal accumulation and abration = no change
      • Factors that affect it
        • Seasons: summer and winter
        • Global Warming
    • Landforms
      • Arete
        • Steep-sided ridge in between two glaciers flow in parallel valleys e.g. Striding Ridge, L.D
      • Pyramidal Peak
        • at least 3 sides backed together with a pointed top e.g. Snowdon, Wales
      • truncated Spurs
        • where interlocking spurs have been eroded and cut off due to the glaciers movement
      • hanging valleys
        • tributary glaciers meet the main glacier as it does not have enough power to erode.
      • Drumlins
      • Ribbon Lakes
        • long, thin river in hollows where softer rock was eroded more
      • Corrie
        • A hollow where accumulation of snow and a glacier is formed when it retreats it may form a tarn
    • Moraine
      • Lateral = on the sides
      • Medial = when two glaciers meet the lateral moraines meet
      • Ground = on the ground from plucking
      • Terminal = at the snout
    • Processes
      • Erosion
        • Ablation - sandpaper effect
        • Plucking - melt-water melts and refreezes around rocks/ boulders
      • Transportation
      • Deposition
    • Impacts of tourism
      • Economic Impacts
        • boosts local economy
        • more employment
      • Social Impacts
        • more transport links
        • tourists may trigger avalanches
      • Environmental Impacts
        • Soil erosion
        • glacial moraine destoyed
        • noise+visual pollution, litter, congestion
    • Management of tourism
      • Tree Screening
      • Improvements to public transport
      • Natural reserves-> theses areas are limited
    • Chamonix
      • french alps, boarder with Italy+ Switzerland
      • Winter -> ski, snowboard, ice climbing, freefall
      • Summer -> hiking, mountain biking, museums and shopping
      • Economy -> employment, tourist shops
      • Social -> jobs diversed, more avalanches
      • Environmental -> congestion = more pollution, more energy needed increases global warming
      • Management-> avalanche barriers, free public transport, renewable energy
    • Impacts of a Glacial Retreat
      • Ice is no longer available for winter sports
      • Unreliable snow fall = fewer tourist
      • Businesses struggle due to fewer tourist
      • increased unemployment
      • Economical - meltwater decreases meaning HEP's could shut down
      • Social - unreliable power supply, businesses shut down - familys need to move, population decines - services decline
      • Environmental - flooding, habitats destroyed, fish that have adapted will die out, harmful pollutants may pollute streams and lakes
    • Avalanche
      • a mass of snow, ice, and rocks falling rapidly down a mountainside.
      • Two Types
        • Loose Snow:- a powdery avalanche originating from one point
        • Slab:- a large scale avalanche formed of a slab or ice and snow breaks away
      • CAUSES
        • heavy snowfall
        • steep slopes
        • tree removal
        • temperature rise
        • Heavy rainfall
        • human factors - off-piste skiers
      • Case Study: Galtür, Austria
        • Facts
          • 23.02.99
          • 200 miles per hour, taking 50 seconds to reach the village
          • 31 people died, 26 were tourists and 5 were locals
          • Rescuers saved 26 people
          • 16 buildings were destroyed
      • Kashmir, Pakistan
        • Facts
          • Feb 2008
          • 30 deaths
          • destroyed infrastructure
          • buried people
        • Cause:- unusual heavy snow
      • Ways to reduce impact:
        • fences
        • avalanche gully
        • walls
        • hills
        • afforestation
        • blow up
        • large flat urban free area

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