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  • Hypertension
    • Definition
      • high blood pressure, approx 140/90mmHg or above on 3 separate occasions.
    • Causes
      • Secondary
        • Identifiable cause
          • renal disease
          • endocrine disorders
          • hyper/hypo thyroidism
          • obesity
          • pregnancy
          • medications
      • Primary
        • No known cause, multifactoral
          • Genetics
            • not fully understood, increases with age
          • Environment, lifestyle
            • high dietary salt, poor diet, lack of exercise, smoking, alcohol, stress, diabetes
    • Symptoms
      • most patients are asymptomatic or have no symptoms, usually detected during routine checkups
      • rarely people present with headaches, altered vision, vertigo, dizziness
    • Treatment
      • older people, calcium channel blockers (thiazides)
      • younger people - ACE inhibitors


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