- Created by: ellenrobinson
- Created on: 19-05-19 11:39
- 10% Type 1 - weight loss, tiredness
- 90% Type 2 - similar symptoms caused by obesity
Diagnosed by GREY-TOPPED containing fluoride (inhibits the metabolism of glucose) and EDTA for blood testing.
Glucose tolerance test: Body overcompensates for glucose so try and digest it over 2 hours.
Normally caused by a benign tumour.
Diagnosis by prolonged fasting, measuring proinsulin, insulin and C-peptide when hypoglycaemic.
Everything is slowed down:
- T4 and T3 is decreased
- TSH is increases
- weight gain
Everything is sped up:
- T4 and T3 will increase
- TSH is decreased
- Weight loss
- Thining skin
Adrenal Cortex Functions
Hormones secreted from the adrenal.
Cortisol is secreted by the adrenal glands as the end-product of the conversion of cholesterol.
Roles of cortisol:
- maintaining blood volume
- maintaining blood pressure
- stimulates gluconeogenesis
- stimulates protein and fat breakdown
Due to a lack of cortisol, due to the failure of the adrenal glands. Easily treated with steroid replacement.
- ACTH contains the same amino acid sequences leads to pigmentation decrease in hands and feet
- measures cortisol and serum electrolytes
- short synacthen test - a synthetic analogue of ACTH.
Caused by excess cortisol, linked with hypertension, obesity and thinning skin.
- confirm cortisol increases
- dexamethasone suppression test
Causes of Crushings:
- increased cortisol & -ve feedback on pituitary -> low ACTH = adrenal
- increase cortisol & no -ve feedback on pituitary -> increased ACTH = eptopic or pituitary
- Pituitary causes, cortisol will be partially suppressed
- ectopic ACTH cortisol will not be suppressed
CT/MRI scans are also useful to find tumours
Growth Hormone Excess
Children - gigantism
Adults - acromegaly
- coarse facial features
- increase the size of hands and feet.
- secretion is episodic
- oral glucose suppression test
- IGF-1 is increased and used in monitor treatment
Growth Hormone Deficiency
A rare cause of short stature in children. Increased GH during exercise.
- Glucagon stimulation test
- Glucagon stimulates the production of GH
Treatment with synthetic GH
High serum prolactin is common. Stress, psychoactive drugs all increase prolactin.
- men - visual field abnormalities
- women - menstrual problems
- Surgery of pituitary