Disorders of the Cardiovascular system

Pericardium disorder

Pericardites - inflammation of the pericardium

caused by trauma and infection and tumours - characterised by pericardial oedema

Oedema causes the visual and parietal layers of the serous pericardium to rub together

Accumulation of pericadial fluid - impairs heart pumping

Pericardial effusion - serous compression

Can be acute or chronic

Cardiac tamponade requires immediate drainage - pericardiocentisis

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Disorders involving heart valves

incompetent valves leak and allow blood to flow back in chambers

Steriosed valves narrower than normal, slows blood flow from heart chamber

Rhematic heart disease

delayed inflammatory response

occurs in children a lot

cardiac valves become inflamed - rhematic fever 

severe inflammation can lead to deformites of valves or myocardium

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Aortic regurgitation

Mitral valve - affects mitral valve, genetic, can cause valve leakage

Aortic regurgitation - blood rejects forward into aorta

caused by a leaky aortic semilery valve

cause volume overload on LV

LV tries to compensate for load 

may stress heart to cause myocardial ischaemal

Damaged valve may be replaced valvuloplasty

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Ischaemic Heart Disease

Principle cause of death in developed countries

atherosclerosis of coronary arteries

gradually occlusion of coronary vessels

reduced blood supply to heart

cardiac muscle scar tissue

Nature - ischaemia of cardiac muscle and hypertension

decreased O2 and blood

necrosis of myocardium

left sided chest pain

pain in left arm, overeating stress exertion

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Diseases of arteries

Raynauds Disease -disease of small arteries - vasospasm and prolonged vasoconstriction

affected by young healthy women, affects peripheral tissues

triggered by cold and emotions, pale colour, blue, then red


sustained raised blood pressure, increased heart failure, essential hypertension

baroreceptors high, higheractivity, sympathetic stimulation

Secondary hypertension, caused by cardiac output and peripheral resistance

fluid retention - vasoconstriction

renal disease may be caused by reginoangiotension -excess secretion

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Pre - eclampsia

caused by alterations to glomerular membrane - protein loss leads to oedema

Effects of Hypertension

heart works harder, cardiac fibres increase in size,leads to heart failure

altered  structure predisposed to clot

blood vessel may become acluded

blood vessel burst and cause heammorage

Treatment - Antihypertenses - lower blood pressure

Diuretics - rid the body of salts


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