How successful was Lenin in achieving his aims by 1924?

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  • How successful was Lenin in achieving his aims by 1924?
    • Aim- defeat the White forces and save the revolution
      • Lenin and the Bolshevik Party introduced War Communism in 1918
        • Aimed at bringing all industry, resources and labour (man-power) under direct control of the centralized state, thus making it possible to direct all resources as effectively as possible towards the goal of winning the war
          • June 28th, 1918, a decree was passed that ended all forms of private capitalism. Many large factories were taken over by the state and on November 29th, 1920, any factory/industry that employed over 10 workers was nationalised
          • Production should be run by the state. Private ownership should be kept to the minimum. Private houses were to be confiscated by the state
          •  State control was to be granted over the labour of every citizen. Once a military army had served its purpose, it would become a labour army
          • The state should produce everything in its own undertakings. The state tried to control the activities of millions of peasants
          • Extreme centralisation was introduced. The economic life of the area controlled by the Bolshevikswas put into the hands of just a few organisations
            • Supreme Economic Council. This had the right to confiscate and requisition. The speciality of the SEC was the management of industry. Over 40 head departments (known as glavki) were set up to accomplish this. One glavki could be responsible for thousands of factories. This frequently resulted in chronic inefficiency
          • The state attempted to become the soul distributor as well as the sole producer
            • he Commissariats took what they needed to meet demands. The people were divided into four categories – manual workers in harmful trades, workers who performed hard physical labour, workers in light tasks/housewives and professional people. Food was distributed on a 4:3:2:1 ratio
              • From 1917 to 1928, about ¾ million ton was collected by the state. In 1920 to 1921, this had risen to about 6 million tons.
            • the policy of having to hand over surplus food caused huge resentment in the countryside, especially as Lenin had promised “all land to the people” pre-November 1917
            • Peasant farmers only grew for themselves, as they knew that any extra would be taken by the state. Therefore, the industrial cities were starved of food despite the introduction of the 4:3:2:1 ratio
              • Between 1916 and 1920, the cities of northern and central Russia lost 33% of their population to the countryside. Under War Communism, the number of those working in the factories and mines dropped by 50%


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