Treaty of Versailles & League of Nation

Summed up revsion notes on the Treaty of Versailles and The league of Nation. Little bit on Weimer

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Treaty of Versailles
Georges Clemenceau France
Woodrow Wilson USA
David Lloyd George Britain
Leaders aim at the Paris peace conference
Some felt that the aim was to punish Germany.
Others felt the aim was cripple Germany so that they could not start another war.
Many felt that the point of the conference was to reward winning countries.
Others aim was to establish just and lasting peace.
Clemenceau
Realist
2/3 of the French army was killed or injured.
Germany seemed very threatening.
Wanted to cripple Germany so that it would not attack France again
French president (Poincare) wanted Germany to be split into states but Clemenceau knew
Britain and USA would not agree to it.
Demanded the treaty would weaken Germany as much as possible.
Wilson
Idealist- wanted to build a much better and peaceful world from the ruins of WW1.
Believed that Germany should be punished but the treaty should not be too harsh as
Germany might recover one day and seek revenge.
Main aim: strengthen democracy in defeated nations so that the people would not let the
leader of the nation to cause another war.
Believed nations should cooperate to achieve world peace. (Published his fourteen points in
1918 to help achieve it)
Believed in self-determination- nations should rules themselves rather than other countries.
(Poles Czechs and Slovaks to rule themselves than by the Austria-hungry Empire)
People in France and Britain didn't agree with the fourteen points as it seemed impractical.
(Difficult for people in Eastern Europe to rule themselves as they were scattered all over the
place)
George
Middle ground between Clemenceau and Wilson
Wanted Germany to be punished but not too harshly
He wanted Germany to lose the navy and colonies because it threatened the British Empire.
Like Wilson didn't want Germany to come back for revenge.
Keen for Germany and Britain to start trading again
Agreements & Disagreements
Clemenceau + Wilson:
A-That they would give disarmament (wouldn't want to give up navy or colonies)
D-What to do with Germany's Rhineland and coalfield in the Saar
Clemenceau +George:
A-German troops to leave Russia and for France to regain Alcase-lorriane.
D-Free access to sea (George didn't want them to)
Wilson + George:
A-German troops to leave Russia.
D- Whether colonies having self determination (Wilson disagreed to it)

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German reactions to the treaty of Versailles
They were to lose:
10% of its land
All of its over sea colonies
12.5% of its population
16% of its coalfield
Almost half of its iron and steel industry
They felt as though they did not start the war nor lost the war.
War guilt & reparations:
Forced to accept blame and pay for all the damaged caused.
They feared that the reparation would cripple them.…read more

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League of Nations
It is an organisation that could solve international problems without resorting to war.
All the major nations joined the league.
They would disarm.
Any dispute that may occur is to be brought to the league.
Members promised to accept decisions made by the league and to protect one another if
invaded.
Members who would break the covenant and go to war, other members would promise to
stop trading with it and send troops if needed to force it to stop fighting.…read more

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The league was helping to deal with disputes between nations as well as other major issues.
· The Mandates Commission: made sure that Britain and France acted in the interest of the
German territories rather than its own.
· The Refugees Committee: helped to return refugees to their homes after the end of the First
World War.
· The Slavery commission: worked to abolish slavery.…read more

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The Geneva protocol was set up because the league realised that it could be undermined by its own
members who was demonstrated in the Corfu incident. The Geneva protocol was set up in 1924
which was If 2 members were in dispute, they would have to go to the league and the decision made
had to be accepted. The Geneva Protocol was hoped to strengthen the league.…read more

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The Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
After the Locarno treaty the Kellogg Briand marked the high point of international relation on the
1920s. The states had to agree to use their armies only for self-defence.
How did economic recovery help?
The Dawes plan of 1924 had helped to sort out Germany's economic chaos and had also helped to
get the economies of Britain and France moving again.…read more

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This was a fatal blow to the league when Italian dictator Mussolini invaded Abyssinia. It had
similarities like the Japanese. Italy too was a leading member of the league, wanted to expand its
empire by invading another country. The origins o f the crisis goes back to 1896 when Italian troops
tried to invade Abyssinia but were defeated by the poorly equipped army of tribesmen. Mussolini
wanted revenge for such humiliating defeat.…read more

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The USA and other important countries were absent: without major powers such as
the USA and USSR the league lacked authority and the sanction were not effective.
Germany 1918-1933: The Weimer Republic
The impact of the war on Germany by 1918:
Germany was bankrupt:
War left 600,000 widows and 2 million children without a father. By 1925 the state
was spending about 1/3 of its budget on war pensions.
National income was about 1/3 of what it had been in 1913.…read more

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