Henry VIII Foreign Policy

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  • Henry VIII foreign policy
    • 1509- 1514
      • 1510- His councillors renewed the Treaty of Etaples going against Henry's wishes.
      • 1511- sent Archbishop of York to Rome to join the Holy League (anti-french alliance).
        • Sent an army of 10,000 to France under the Marquis of Dorset but humiliating as Spain had used it as a diversion to conquer Navarre.
      • 1413- Wolsey skillfully organised the French expedition in which England captured Tournai after winning the Battle of Spurs.
      • 1514- Anglo-French treaty in which England could keep Tournai (which would later be sold back for less than it cost to maintain it)- established peace with the marriage of Mary and Louis XII
        • Louis XII would die and the new king Francis I would encourage Mary and the Duke of Suffolk to marry- a humiliating defeat for Henry
          • He wanted to organise another expedition but Ferdinand and Maximilian had made extra peace treaties with France.
      • Catharine of Aragon was acting as regent when Scotland invaded- Earl of Surrey tasked with crushing the rebels. Battle of Flodden- 10,000 Scottish troops slain including James IV- era of peace as sister and nephew had crown.
    • 1514-1526
      • Henry had run out of money- unable to exploit the ruler of Scotland being a minor
      • Treaty of London 1518- Henry responded to the call of Pope Leo X who called for all Christians to unite against the turks who had just taken constantinople.
      • Henry agreed to give Tournai back to France and received a French Pension- both united in worry of Charles V
        • Field of Cloth of Gold 1520- 2 week meeting near Calais- achieved very little- rulers had a wrestling match and left on hostile terms, Henry also had to meet Charles V before and after this event to show he supported him as well.
      • 1521- Charles V and Henry became closer- Treaty of Bruges suggested a marriage between Charles and Mary.
        • Also agreed new expedition to France-England avoided humiliation by agreeing troops and dates in advance- 30,000 troops given
          • Wolsey's national survey of 1522 assessed how much could be raised for this - Battle of Pavia Charles V won and took Francis prisoner- but did not share victory so Henry tried to do it independently -the Amicable Grant of 1525 had to later be reversed.
    • 1540-1547
      • Reverted back to old aggressive foreign policy (now wasting his own money gained from the dissolution of the monasteries)
        • battle of solway moss- Scotland defeated and James V died leaving throne to Mary
          • Henry tried to exploit this by organising the Treaty of Greenwich- caused the rough wooing of Scotland.
    • 1527-1540
      • pro french foreign policy- Henry's great matter caused an anti-imperial shift. Treaty of Amiens- embargo on burgundian lands.
      • Death of Anne and Catharine opened possibility of alliance with charles but him and Francis rejected England and Pope excommunicated Henry.
        • Marriage with Anne of Cleeves was supposed to strengthen protestant allies but didn't last long!

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