Henry VIII Foreign policy

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  • The Foreign policy of Henry VIII failed to achieve its objectives in the years 1509-1547
    • Foreign policy aims
      • Glorious war-like foreign policy
      • Recognition and power abroad
    • France
      • England joins the Holy League against France
        • First expedition to France, in 1512, led and organised by Henry VIII is a failure
      • Second expedition to France, in 1513, organised by Wolsey is a success
        • Battle of the Spurs, capture of Tournai and Therouanne and Treaty of St Germaine-en-laye
          • However, as Foreign Policy was very expensive, Henry didn't have the money to exploit opportunities in France
        • Marriage alliance between Louis XII and Princess Mary
          • After Louis XII died, Francis I became King, he replaced Henry as the arbiter of Europe after ahving taken control of northern Italy
      • Lost negotiated French pension (Treaty of Etaples)
      • Francis I and Henry VIII resolved their differences at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520
        • Francis beat Henry in a wrestling match, the french win is not recorded in any English documents from the time
        • Peace did not last, France and England back at war in 1522, after Charles V promised Henry French territory if he went to war - Battle of Pavia - Treaty of Cambrai, leaving Henry diplomatically isolated
    • Scotland
      • Battle of Flodden, 1513
        • Victory for the English, James IV of Scotland killed in Battle
        • However, like in France, Henry was unable to exploit victories in Scotland due to limited funds
      • Invasion of Scotland, 1542
        • military success
        • Treaty of Greenwich, 1543
          • marriage alliance between Edward VI and MQOS
    • Charles V
      • Nephew of Catherine of Aragon
      • When Charles V became King of Spain, he deserted Henry and joined an alliance with France
        • England excluded from Treaty of Noyon, 1516
      • Charles V convinced Henry to go to war against France by promising him French Territory
        • Charles went back on his word
        • After Battle of Pavia 1525, Henry becomes diplomatically isolated by Charles V
        • May, 1527, the pope became a prisoner of Charles V
      • 1529, Treaty of Cambrai signed between Francis I and Charles V
    • Main success of Henry VIII's Foreign Policy
      • Treaty of London, 1518
        • Peace treaty between Burgandy, France, England, HRE, the Hasburgs, the Netherlands, the Papal states and Spain
        • They agreed not to attack one another
        • Henry was pleased (arbiter of Europe through peace and not war)
        • regarded as Wolsey's greatest achievement
    • Break with Rome and Dissolution of Monasteries meant increased crown finances





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