Healthcare in Britain

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  • HEALTHCARE
    • 1918-1939
      • Ministry of Health 1919
        • lacked political will and authority to radically change the system
        • first attempt by central government
        • limited to helping in voluntary hospitals
          • 12 in London and 10 in provinces
      • Health Insurance
        • friendly societies set up to help the poor
          • many went bankrupt
          • poor people had less opportunities
            • maternal mortality rates 50% higher in low income families
        • improvement from the 19111 insurance act (only workers)
        • 18 million workers covered by health insurance by 1939
      • Local Government act 1929
        • PAC's developed infirmaries into proper hospitals
        • no force or time scale
        • infant mortalitiy rate improved
          • 1910 14.3/1000
          • 1938 12/1000
    • 1939-1979
      • World War 2
        • emergency medical service 1939
          • first aid and casualty clearing for those wounded in air raids
          • government had control over hospitals
          • basis of post war healthcare service
        • rationing improved healthcare
          • poor ate more and rich ate less
        • post war consensus favoured national system
          • white paper 1944 recommended national system paid by taxation
        • new technology e.g. treating burns
      • Aneurin Bevan
        • minister of health in post war Attlee government
        • directed the system with policies
          • mass immunisation
            • reduction of polio in the 1950's
            • 90% drop in whooping cough
        • overcome opposition from doctors
          • 90% of BMA voted againsr joining the NHS
            • February 1948
          • granting doctors fees for patients in their books
          • allowed consultations of private practice
        • NHS was run by priveleged groups
          • same as pre war healthcare
      • Medical Advancement
        • public began to expect more (1960's and 1970's)
          • led to increasing costs
            • NHS 4.1% of GNP in 1950
              • increased to 4.8%by 1970
        • radical procedures and medicine on wider scale
          • e.g. antibiotics
            • 1948 one avaliable
              • 1968 there was 33
        • just focused on improving the system

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