Britain Transformed Theme 3 Ethnic Minorities

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  • Ethnic minorities.
    • Unions, law makers and police considered minorities to not be British and therefore didn't have the same rights as British workers.
      • The colour bar was were people of colour were excluded from certain types of employment or denied access to healthcare and education etc.
        • Special Restrictions Act 1925 forced 'coloured' seamen to prove their British Citizenship to immigration authorities or be deported.
      • the year 1919 tended to see race riots across many British cities including Cardiff, London, Glasgow, Hull and Salford. angry mobs of unemployed white Britons attacked Asian, and black people who they thought stole their jobs.
        • The Alien Orders Act 1920 required migrant workers to register with the police before seeking work.
      • The Communist Party of Great Britain played a significant role in the fight against anti racism as well as the International African Service Bureau which encouraged leaders to lobby MPs for black rights.
    • Mass immigration was caused by a serious labour shortage across Britain. The British Nationality Act 1948 created a new legal right for all British colonies to enter the UK.
      • by 1971 6.4% of the population was not born in Britain.
        • in 1958 on August bank holiday there was a series of racial attacks in cities such as Nottingham and Nottinghill.
      • unions and management in Britain such as Ford Daganham, Vickers, Tate and Lyle enforced a quota system whereby 95% of the workforce had to be white.
    • In 1962 the commonwealth Immigration Act limited immigration so migrants must already have a job to go to, the must have particular skills eg medicine, and they depended on people already there.
      • by 1968 2000 Kenyan Asians were arriving in Britain each month.
        • Commonwealth Immigration Act 1968 tightened immigration laws. it restricted immigration to 1500 every year. 72% of Britons supported the act.
          • Enoch Powell gave a speech titled 'Rivers of Blood' in 1968 in which he argued immigrants should return home. he was dismissed from his position.
          • Race Relations Act 1965 and 68 outlawed racial discrimination in public places. they outlawed incitement to racial discrimination. and set up a board to discuss and investigate any cases of discrimination

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