has affirmative action been good for the USA?

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  • Has affirmative action been good for the USA?
    • yes
      • reversing years of discrimination
        • LBJ: "You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line of a race and then say you are free to compete with all the others, and still just believe that you have been completely fair."
      • AA policies now more subtle
      • where AA has banned, EM candidates fallen (cali & texas)
      • disputing mismatched theory
        • uni of cali - students admitted w/ lower grades don't suffer
      • promotes diversity
        • supreme court justice Sonia Sotomayor
      • recent increased racial tensions mean MORE AA not less
        • US army, microsoft, coca cola etc all for AA
    • no
      • AA only really helped the middle class
      • too limited - only uni not schools
      • lowered aspirations of ethnic minorities (disincentive)
      • divisive - doesn't promote harmony & integration
      • mismatch effect
      • out of date - 1/6 marriages now interracial


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