Hard and soft water

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  • Created by: jaaaz_v
  • Created on: 04-05-15 18:51
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  • Hard Water
    • Reacts with soap to form scum
      • More soap needed to form a lather
      • Can use soapless detergents, they don't form scum
    • Contains dissolved compounds (calcium or magnesium)
      • Dissolved into it when water forms contact with rocks
    • Permanent hard water
      • Harder to make soft
    • Temporary hard water
      • Contains hydrocarbonate ions that decompose on heating to produce carbonate ions
        • The ions react with calcium and magnesium ions to form precipitates
    • The production of scale reduces the efficiency of heating systems and kettles
    • Beneficial calcium compounds good for bones and teeth
    • Can be softened by adding sodium carbonate
      • Reacts with the calcium and magnesium ions to form a precipitate
    • Softened using commercial water softeners
      • Ion exchange columns that contain hydrogen or sodium ions
        • Replace the magnesium and calcium ions in the water


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