Was the Gulf War and RMA?

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  • Gulf War an RMA?
    • Jan 16 1991 - Desert Shield - build up of forces , Desert Storm - Combat phase. war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
      • Definition - the innovative application of new technologies which, combined with dramatic changes in military doctrine and operational and organisational concepts fundamentally alters the character and conduct of military operations.    
    • System of systems.
      • Further technology is employed to integrate previously disparate forces and weapons systems. Now in one coherent whole, where the battle space awareness and decision making would have a decisive edge.
        • C4 allowed the two, sensors and weapons to be link effectively.
        • System of systems is a collection of task-oriented or dedicated systems that pool their resources and capabilities together to create a new, more complex system which offers more functionality and performance than simply the sum of the constituent systems
      • Connecting sensor systems to shooting systems in a single one via deep integration - information can move quickly.
        • Linking systems into joint system of systems allows for the interoperability and synergism of Command, Control, Computers, Communications, and Information (C4I) and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Systems
      • Near perfect mission assignment - fast rate and accuracy of attack.
    • Technology
      • Sensors - optical, thermal, inca red, laser, radar - ariel platforms, GPS reduce fog of war. Can see the battlefield 24 hours, real times, in any weather. Satellites.
        • Sophisticated surveillance, re-connaissance, intelligence gathering systems.
      • Weapons - attack, stealth aircraft, precision guided missiles, few attacks, precision, no waste, limited casualties - (1 artillery, 4 tanks lost) Precision Bombing meant that the
        • Precision Bombing meant that the logistic supply of bombs could be cut saving money, but also saving lives as its less damaging than large scale WW2 bombing.
        • Patriot missiles to intercept Iraqi Scud missiles.
    • Communication
      • Computers - telephones - Effective simmunication in a matter of seconds lead to the removal of mis-communication which in the past lead to problems (Charge of the Light Brigade).
        • Highlighted the imperative of denying the adversary the ability to communicate with his forces.
    • Is it RMA if to heavily leant on tech not doctrine?
      • AVF
        • Rebuild force structure "be all you can be" Promoted army as good - gain skill, employment , tuition. It met the recruiting goals. New way to get soldiers.
      • Gold Water Nicolls.
        • Defence reorganisation Act
          • Streamlined chain of command, unify field commanders,shared procurement, share tech, schools for officers, train combatant commanders,service chiefs no longer control their force, employ air land battle.
          • States what each level of command in the army is responsible for.
      • Airland Battle
        • Airland Batte Doctrine 1982 - focused on operational level. One concept was the role of the campaign in coordinating simultaneous and sequential tactical action, using sensors and precision strike tech, see deep fighting.
          • co-ordination within the theatre, joinery, fluidity, combined arms and integrated fire and manoeuvre.
          • Manoeuvre  - rapid vigorous unpredictable-manoeuvre would disorientate the enemy, decisive not attrition. Coding operation-recognised a new level - employment of military forces to get strategic goals met in the theatre through design.
            • Thetre one integrated campaign - planning to exploit it in depth-importance of combined arms-sustain momentum of attack-decentralised command and control.
            • AirLand Battle emphasized close coordination between land forces acting as an aggressively maneuvering defense, and air forces attacking rear-echelon forces feeding those front line enemy forces.
      • Net Centric Warfare
        • It seeks to translate an information advantage, enabled in part by information technology, into a competitive advantage-through the robust Computer networking of well informed geographically dispersed forces.
    • Current Arguments
      • Nato agrees that Gulf War was an RMA.
      • Stephen Biddle does not recognise the idea of an RMA and military doctrine and tactics are far more important to battle outcomes in modern warfare than technological progress is, and that basic doctrine has changed little since the second half of World War I.


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